2005 Management Plan

Manoir Papineau National Historic Site

Manoir Papineau National Historic Site Management Plan cover page 

For more information about the management plan or about Manoir-Papineau National Historic Site:

Mailing address:
   Location: Manoir-Papineau National Historic Site
     500, Notre-Dame
     Montebello, Quebec, Canada
     J0V 1L0

Telephone:
   Phone number: 418-572-6151

Teletypewriter (TTY):
   Teletypewriter (TTY): 1-866-787-6221



Foreword

Stéphane Dion
The Honourable Stéphane Dion, Minister of the Environment

Canada's national historic sites, national parks and national marine conservation areas represent the soul of our country. They are a central part of who we are and what we are. They are places of beauty and wonder and heritage. Each tells its own story. Together, they connect Canadians to our roots, to our future and to each other.

We see a future in which each of the national historic sites of Canada, whether federally owned or not, enjoys sound commemorative health, and in which our system of sites evolves as our country evolves. Our national historic sites will be places for all Canadians to experience and learn from. They will help our communities to be vibrant and creative, and contribute to our efforts to revitalize Canada's cities. Together, we will hold these places in trust for this and future generations, while ensuring they contribute to Canada's sustainable economy and environmental health.

Our vision is also for each of Canada's unique terrestrial and marine regions to be represented by at least one national park or national marine conservation area, for all national parks to be in sound ecological health, for all national marine conservation areas to promote the ecologically sustainable use of our marine resources in a way that harmonizes conservation practices with human activities, and for both national parks and national marine conservation areas to be places for all Canadians to experience and enjoy.

These principles form the foundation of the new management plan for Manoir Papineau National Historic Site of Canada. May I offer my appreciation to the vast range of thoughtful Canadians who helped develop this plan. I am especially grateful to our very dedicated team from Parks Canada and to all those local organizations and individuals who have demonstrated such good will, hard work, spirit of co-operation and extraordinary sense of stewardship.

In that same spirit of partnership and responsibility, I am pleased to approve the Manoir Papineau National Historic Site of Canada Management Plan.

Original signed by:

Stéphane Dion
Minister of the Environment

Recommendations

Recommended and original signed by:

Alan Latourelle

Chief Executive Officer
Parks Canada

Francine Émond

Director, Western Québec Field Unit
Parks Canada


Introduction

The Manoir Papineau National Historic Site of Canada is located in Montebello, a municipality situated on the Québec side of the Ottawa River halfway between Ottawa/ Gatineau and Montréal. Declared to be of national architectural significance in 1986, the manor house – as well as part of the former seigneurial estate of the Papineau family – was transferred to Parks Canada in 1993 under an agreement reached between the Canadian government and Canadian Pacific Hotels Corporation Footnote 1, today the Fairmont Corporation.

The agreement is in the form of a long-term lease lasting 42 years. It stipulates that “the leaseholder agrees to transform the Property into a national historic site, at its own expense, in order to acquaint the public with the life of Louis-Joseph Papineau and his family, according to the themes and objectives of the Property” (article 3.5) and for that purpose “agrees to make, within a reasonable timeframe and at its own expense, the Improvements...” Footnote 2 (article 3.1). [translation]

In accordance with one of the clauses in the lease, a consultation committee composed of representatives of the community groups Footnote 3 involved was formed in the months following the signing of the agreement. Considered as a front-line stakeholder by Parks Canada, the committee’s mandate is essentially to inform project leaders of the community’s concerns and expectations, and to provide recommendations and counsel relative to the directions proposed in order to ensure the commemorative integrity of the site and to promote it as an attraction in the La Petite-Nation region.

The first key stage in the process of planning the site was completed in 1996 with the initial tabling of the commemorative integrity statement Footnote 4 drawn up based on recommendations of the Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada and a direction-setting document Footnote 5.

In the fall of 1997, an exhaustive background document Footnote 6 was distributed to inform the public of the approach proposed by Parks Canada to preserve and present the Manoir Papineau National Historic Site of Canada. A formal presentation to the consultation committee and an open-house evening for the general public enabled interested parties to obtain clarifications regarding the proposed directions and to express their concerns, ideas and suggestions. A report outlining the points of view expressed during the consultations was drawn up in March 1998 Footnote 7.

The management plan

The purpose of the management plan of a national historic site is essentially to ensure the commemorative integrity of the site and to ensure that the principles and practices of cultural resource management are applied.

The management plan states Parks Canada’s general policies as they apply to a specific site, and takes into account the opinions and proposals of the general public. The directions expressed in the plan are directly related to Parks Canada’s fundamental responsibilities: to ensure the commemorative integrity of the site, to offer quality services to visitors and to use public funds wisely. In implementing the directions contained in management plans, Parks Canada is fulfilling its duty to Canadians.

In accordance with terms of the Parks Canada Agency Act, management plans must be reviewed every five years. It is therefore to be expected that the present plan, the first to be drawn up for the Manoir Papineau National Historic Site of Canada, will be reviewed and updated in 2010.

In addition to giving a brief account of Louis-Joseph Papineau’s role in Canadian history as seigneur of La Petite-Nation and designer of the “Monte-Bello” estate and seigneurial manor, the first section of the plan presents the concept of commemorative integrity, and contains excerpts from the commemorative integrity statement pertaining to the site. The second section describes the present-day situation, painting a clear picture of the site in terms of its commemorative integrity and providing factual information concerning the site’s status from a legal standpoint, visitation, existing collaborative agreements, and the regional tourism context... The third section of the plan outlines the concept of conservation and presentation proposed to meet the objectives pursued, states Park Canada’s vision of the site fifteen years down the road and defines a series of strategic directions that will guide Parks Canada’s future actions and decisions relating to the site. A summary of the project’s environmental assessment is presented at the end of the management plan.

Map 1: Situation/Location

Situation/Location 
Map 1: Situation/Location — Text version

This map shows the location of Manoir Papineau National Historic Site, nearby Montebello, Québec, approximately 80 km northeast of Ottawa, Ontario and 110 km northwest of Montréal, Québec


1.0 Commemorative integrity of the site

As a federal government agency, Parks Canada is responsible for protecting and presenting Canada's historical and cultural heritage. An important part of its mission is:

  • to foster knowledge and appreciation of Canada's history through a national program of commemoration;
  • to ensure the commemorative integrity Footnote 8 of national historic sites administered by Parks Canada by protecting and presenting them for the benefit, education and enjoyment of this and future generations in a manner that respects the valuable and irreplaceable legacy represented by these places and their resources;
  • to encourage and support initiatives aimed at ensuring the protection and presentation of sites of national historic or architectural importance that are not under the jurisdiction of Parks Canada.

In order to translate its mandate into action, Parks Canada has adopted a series of strategic objectives that will guide its activities over the next five to ten years. Among these objectives are the following:

  • to ensure the commemorative integrity of national historic sites;
  • to provide Canadians and international visitors with information on Canadian heritage, explain commemorative integrity and encourage Canadians to further appreciate the network of historic sites (including historic canals), national parks and marine conservation areas;
  • to provide visitors with services that enable them to enjoy and appreciate protected heritage areas and to ensure that any negative impacts are minimized.

Respecting the commemorative integrity of sites recognized as having national historic importance is therefore one of Parks Canada's primary objectives. The commemorative integrity statement serves as a guide for site planning and management. The statement includes the commemorative intent of the site and a description of existing resources and their value, and identifies messages concerning the national historic importance of the site that should be conveyed to the public. The commemorative integrity statement also sets objectives to be met with respect to the protection of cultural resources and the communication of messages associated with the national historic importance of the site. The commemorative integrity statement is therefore a reference framework that establishes what constitutes the desired state of the site; the difference between the desired state and existing site conditions determines specific management actions aimed at conserving and presenting the site.

Louis-Joseph Papineau, Seigneur of La Petite-Nation

Son of a Montréal notary, politician and seigneur, Louis-Joseph Papineau followed in his father's footsteps. A lawyer and politician, he shared to the point of incarnating the aspirations of an entire class of French-Canadian society at the time – members of the liberal professions.

In 1815, Papineau was elected Speaker of the House of Assembly of Lower Canada, and at the same time led the Parti canadien, which would become the Parti patriote in 1826. It was as leader of the Parti patriote that Papineau was to make his mark in Canadian history. He orchestrated strategies aimed at ensuring that the social leadership of the French-Canadian nation was in the hands of the class in society to which he belonged. Between 1827 and 1837, Papineau was a key figure in the House of Assembly of Lower Canada and the national leader of the French-Canadians, whose desire for political emancipation he incarnated. Refusal of the colonial and home authorities to meet the demands of the Patriotes would lead to the events of 1837-1838, which resulted in Papineau being exiled to the United States and later to France until 1845.

Louis-Joseph Papineau's political ideas, fuelled by his great intellectual curiosity, were influenced by philosophers of the Enlightenment Era and politically speaking he adhered to liberalism. Economically and socially, however, his views were that of a conservative.

As national leader, Papineau promoted an idealized concept of seigneurial tenure. He believed that the seigneurial system was more likely to ensure an equal division of land ownership among individuals than capitalism. He tended to exaggerate the role of its main player, the seigneur, seeing him as the guardian of social equality. At the same time, Papineau was unable to dissociate seigneurialism from French-Canadian nationalism. He believed that the two ideologies were inseparable to the point of being forced to rationalize their contradictions, particularly when it came to social reform. Thus, he could not realistically envisage the abolition of the seigneurial system without seeing a serious threat to the very existence of the French-Canadian nation whose aspirations he embodied.

In 1817, Louis-Joseph Papineau acquired the La Petite-Nation seigneury from his father, and remained its owner until his death in 1871. Initially he was too busy with his political career to see to the everyday administration of the seigneury and, like his father had done before him, entrusted it to his brother Denis-Benjamin. In 1845, however, back after his exile in Europe, Louis-Joseph Papineau wrote “that it was his duty as a landowner to live among the colonists”. In October of that year, he visited the seigneury to have a look around and to select the site of his new manor house. He chose Cape Bonsecours, a central location on the front of the seigneury, where he planned the development of a seigneurial estate that he called “Monte-Bello”. In 1848, Papineau began construction of a magnificent manor house, moving in with his family at the end of 1850.

Papineau devoted the last twenty years of his life to his family, reading, managing the seigneury and developing his estate. After his death, his descendants lived in the manor house until 1929.


1.1 Commemorative intent

The commemorative intent of a historic site, i.e. the specific element of the site that is to be commemorated, is closely tied to the particular features that led to its being recognized as having national importance and, in the final analysis, justifies its reason for being part of the network of national historic sites. The commemorative intent of a site is determined essentially on the basis of recommendations of the Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada, and is approved by the Minister.

The Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada has considered the national importance of the Manoir Papineau on a number of occasions. In 1920, when it was announced that the “château” was for sale, it issued a statement that the site was only of local importance and did not have great value as a commemorative site because it was not witness to an actual historic event. To fully understand the Board’s comments and recommendations concerning the manor house, however, one must consider its declarations with respect to Louis-Joseph Papineau himself.

The Board has considered the national significance of Louis-Joseph Papineau on several occasions: his life as a politician, his role as a seigneur and paterfamilias of the Papineau family, and finally, in association with his two residences (the Montebello seigneurial manor and his Bonsecours Street residence in Montréal).

In 1937, Papineau’s name appeared on a list of “outstanding figures in Canadian history”. It was recommended that a “secondary plaque” be erected in his honour at his birthplace, Montréal. The following year, the text for the plaque was approved and Papineau was described as a “Speaker and Political Leader”.

Papineau was once again on the Board's agenda in 1966 when the national significance of his home on Bonsecours Street in Montréal was assessed. In 1968, the building was declared to be of national “historic and architectural” importance and the Board recommended to the Minister that it be acquired. From that time forward, the Board's statements with regard to Papineau would be in reference to either the Montebello manor house or the Bonsecours Street residence.

In 1974, the Board recommended that Louis-Joseph Papineau be commemorated as a “figure” and a plaque was placed at his manor house in Montebello. His home on Bonsecours Street was declared to be of national importance because of its architecture. However, the Board suggested that the inscription on the plaque clearly make the connection between Papineau and his Montréal home. The wording was approved in November 1982 and refers to the building's architectural features, but also makes reference to the fact that it was the family residence of Louis-Joseph Papineau, politician and “leader of the Parti canadien and one of the figures marking the events of 1837”.

In June 1986, the Board reviewed the possibility of commemorating Papineau and his residences, stating at the time that Manoir Papineau was a good, albeit unusual, example of a 19th century country estate. The Board specifically observed that the architectural features of the manor, displaying several different styles, reflected “the social ambitions, tastes and personality of its owner – Louis-Joseph Papineau – during the later years of his life”. The Board then stated, “the Manoir Papineau has national architectural significance and should be the subject of a commemorative plaque which, while not forgetting the Papineau family, should focus mainly on the fact that the home reflects the personality of Louis-Joseph Papineau”.

At that same meeting in June 1986, the Board clarified past recommendations regarding Papineau and the Bonsecours Street residence (referred to as “the Papineau house”). It recommended that two commemorative plaques be erected at the Papineau house: one referring to the building's architectural value and the other honouring the politician, his life and his work, because of the “close ties between the house and the most active and important period in Papineau's life”.

Finally, the inscription for a plaque commemorating Manoir Papineau was approved in 1989. The wording evokes Papineau's political career but focuses particularly on the later years of his life when, ”seeing the seigneurial system as a defence against assimilation”, he left politics to devote his time to his La Petite-Nation seigneury. The inscription also makes the link between the cultured man who designed his home inspired by different architectural styles and the thinker who laid out his family property “in the image he had of an ideal estate”.

These words demonstrate the Board's firm intention to commemorate Louis-Joseph Papineau, the individual, and his two residences (for their respective architectural features): “Monte-Bello” Footnote 9 and the home on Bonsecours Street in Montréal. The clarifications made by the Board in 1986 provide a clearer understanding of the situation. On the one hand, the national significance of the Montréal house stems from its association with the politician at the peak of his career (before 1837), whereas “Monte-Bello” is associated with Papineau the seigneur, thinker and man of culture following his decision to settle at the seigneury (1846).

Based on the above, the commemorative intent of the site has been defined as follows:

The Manoir Papineau National Historic Site of Canada primarily commemorates Louis-Joseph Papineau and the architectural significance of his manor house as a reflection of his social ambitions, tastes and personality.

It also bears witness to the man who, after leaving the political arena, devoted his time to developing an ideal estate and managing his La Petite-Nation seigneury.

Finally, the site commemorates the role played by the Papineau family in developing the estate.


1.2 Resources that symbolize or characterize the site's national importance

Today, what is known as the “Papineau estate” is really only a very small part of the original seigneury land Footnote 10. The Montebello tourist reception centre (the old railway station, relocated) and the adjacent rest area form the eastern boundary of the estate; the Château Montebello property and hotel facilities lie to the west.

The manor house and several outbuildings are on Cape Bonsecours, the highest point of the inhabited part of the estate. Neighbouring land on which other outbuildings are located, including the gardener's cottage and the funeral chapel, is intersected by Papineau Stream and a small tributary, Pesant Stream. Half of the area occupied by the national historic site is covered by an exceptionally diverse forest that contains a number of the original trees; that forest was part of Papineau's vision for the landscape of his estate.

The resources discussed below have been recognized as being symbolic or characteristic of the national significance of the Manoir Papineau National Historic Site of Canada. According to Parks Canada's Cultural Resource Management Policy, they are considered “level 1” resources.

Some of the resources associated with the commemorative intent are found outside the boundaries of the property transferred to Parks Canada in 1993; these resources are indicated by an asterisk.

The site and cultural landscape

On the portion of the seigneurial estate occupied by the national historic site Footnote 11, the layout of the estate as conceived by Louis-Joseph Papineau and his son Amédée is still clearly visible. The tastes and social aspirations of the seigneur of La Petite-Nation are all reflected here.

Cape Bonsecours and its surroundings were extensively landscaped, with clearings interspersed throughout a woodland area intersected by winding trails. Clearly, Louis-Joseph Papineau (through his son Amédée, who was a fervent follower of Andrew Jackson Downing) Footnote 12, was largely inspired by English gardens when he planned this part of the estate. In seeking the “picturesque” effect, Papineau made good use of the site's potential. The manor house stands atop the cape, with a view over several kilometres to the east and west, and overlooks the right bank of the Ottawa River. The area immediately surrounding the manor house still has traces of flower beds dating back to the time of the Papineau family. On the southern slope of Cape Bonsecours are the remains of stepped flower beds, footpaths and rest areas created by the family. In front of the main entrance to the manor house, facing north, Papineau had cleared fields below the cape. Symbolically speaking, he had created a farm setting alongside a park designed for recreation, leisure and reverie...

Even today, the vast woodland park alongside Cape Bonsecours is intersected by the old, slightly undulating Manor House Road, and by Papineau Stream and its tributary, Pesant Stream. The various trails laid out by Papineau and his son in the park, on the cape and below the cape are for the most part still visible.

The entrance to the estate consists of a gate* that marks the beginning of Manor House Road. The current gate of stone and wrought iron was installed by the Seigniory Club and beside it is the gatekeeper's office. It replaced the old gate that was there at the time of the Papineau family. Near the entrance gate is the gardener's cottage*, which was built around the same time as the manor and was where the keeper of the estate lived.

The Papineau family built a simple network of interconnecting roads to get around the estate and they are still in use today: Manor House Road, that links the eastern point of the cape to the public road (today Highway 148), Cape Road, which crosses the cape from east to west and leads to Green Road*, built to link the area where the farm buildings are located, at the foot of the western end of the cape, and the public road. Green Road was closed off by a gate where it joined the public road, as was Manor House Road, to provide some privacy to the seigneur and his family. Today, Green Road is for the most part narrower than its original width and has been paved.

Manor House Road winds its way through the woodland, leading to the manor. Its original path and width have been preserved and it is still covered with gravel. The road starts off by descending toward a recently constructed bridge that crosses Papineau Stream; the original bridge was made of logs. Near the bridge, the lazy flow of the stream is interrupted by a small waterfall created during the time of the Papineau family. After the bridge, Manor House Road goes up and comes to a small clearing where you see the family funeral chapel* and cemetery* surrounded by a wrought iron fence*. The road then turns south and climbs up Cape Bonsecours. The carefully designed route uses the estate's topography in such a way that the manor house is still hidden from sight. Only after walking about a hundred metres do you finally see the northeast corner of the building. On the cape, Manor House Road joins Cape Road, which runs along the front and west side of the manor, before turning toward the granary and stable* to join Green Road. Cape Road is now paved and its path has been modified to the west of the manor house.

Large lawns surround the manor house. The front lawn is highlighted by a century-old red oak that was there at the time of Papineau. Tall pines form a backdrop for the landscape. To the northeast of the lawn, at the end of a flagstone path, a rustic-looking log kiosk (campanile) is nestled in a thick grove. To the south of the manor house, another lawn dotted with tall poplars and cedars stretches toward the Ottawa River. A curtain of maples, lilacs and honeysuckles borders the east and south lawn. The eye is also drawn to a giant white pine, once surrounded by a circular wooden lookout; When Papineau's relatives or guests came to stay at the manor house he would climb up to the lookout to watch them as they arrived or departed. Another extensive lawn dotted with tall trees lies to the west of the manor house. On the east side of the residence, some of the lawn was taken up by the extension that was added to the manor.

To the south of Cape Road, the old vegetable garden has been replaced with a gently sloping lawn. A snowberry hedge and plantations of evergreens separate this area from the road. Wide rough limestone steps lined with peonies and hydrangeas lead to the vegetable garden.

South of the vegetable garden are the terraces, formerly referred to as the “south hill”, on which vines and fruit trees were once planted. The orchard is no longer there but has been replaced by a wide variety of plant species. Vestiges of a stone wall, steps and rest areas give visitors an idea of what it must have looked like in Papineau's time.

The tea pavilion is located with its back to the river.A wooden trellis leaning against the stone foundation reminds visitors that vines were once grown there. On the west side, a stone wall curves to join an older stone stairway that leads to the terraces. Even overgrown with vegetation, the original landscape is still visible.

The Papineau family created four meadows* on the estate, although none are part of the present-day national historic site. Two of the meadows have been partially eliminated because of modern-day additions: the tourist reception centre is located on the old horse pasture*; Château Montebello and its outbuildings stand on the site of the Anse aux Vaches Meadow*. However, the gardener's cottage meadow* and the barn meadow* (today partially covered by tennis courts) still bear witness to the layout of the estate at the time of the Papineau family.

As the site still shows today, Louis-Joseph Papineau and his son divided the vast property of the inhabited part of the estate into the park, the lawns, the garden and the meadows, creating their own “environmental paradise” as envisioned by Papineau. According to their initial design, the park consisted of the existing forest that was to be preserved and, of course, maintained, with the addition of selected species. The park included the path followed by Manor House Road, a small waterfall added to Papineau Stream and a second access road, Green Road that ran parallel to Manor House Road and linked the area of the farming buildings to the public road. The lawns were extensive grassy areas that surrounded the seigneurial residence and included flower beds, some trees, shrubs and outdoor furniture. The flower bed was combined with a vegetable garden, providing a skilful association of flowers and vegetables that took up the entire southern slope of Cape Bonsecours. The meadows were used for growing field grasses (barn meadow), for market gardening (gardener's cottage meadow) or for putting the animals out to pasture (the Anse aux Vaches and horse pasture meadows).

Built heritage

The manor house

Keystone of the grand project for the ideal estate envisioned by Louis-Joseph Papineau, the seigneurial manor is a huge rectangular stone building whose original design included four towers. Two were built at the end of the intensive period of construction that lasted from 1848 to 1850. On the south-west corner, another smaller tower housing the latrines was built around the same time as the corner towers and in the same octagonal design. Then Papineau had another tower built, square this time, to house the library; it dates back to 1856, but another floor was added in 1880 by Amédée Papineau, who inherited the estate upon the death of his father. One year later he built an extension to the drawing room that was referred to as the “blue room”, a five-sided annex. A fire destroyed the octagonal roof of one of the towers in 1892 and it was replaced by the conical roof that we see today.

The building's somewhat eclectic composition is an illustration of the Picturesque movement. In the words of Papineau's eldest son, the side facing the river “resembles a Normandy manor house”. The lateral walls and the front wall are typical of grand homes of the Regency era, with the long veranda protected by an overhanging cantilevered roof. An observation deck atop the roof shows the decisive influence of the Picturesque movement. The windows on the main façade are definitely of the classical style, as is the piano mobile (Italian for “noble floor”, meaning the main floor), with its unquestionably classic large bay windows.

The Neo-Classical entranceway door opens up onto a main hall of classic design. The basement level housed the kitchen, panty, wine cellar and servants' quarters. The servants also had rooms in the attic, while the family's bedrooms were located on the main floor.

One particular feature of this grand residence is clearly its towers. One tower housed exclusively a cantilevered winding staircase that linked all the floors. In the early years, the two lower floors of the other tower were used as a greenhouse until a new greenhouse was built in 1881 in the basement of the “blue room”.

The role played by Louis-Joseph Papineau in designing the manor is evident in a variety of ways: the number of windows, the presence of towers and the layout of the rooms. His role becomes even clearer, however, if we consider his initial design; Papineau wanted his manor house to project the image of a “feudal castle” flanked by four towers, a kind of eagle's nest whose summit would provide magnificent vistas in all directions. Several modifications were made to the manor as it was being built, but when it came to the construction of his favourite part, the library, built in 1856, he crowned the tower with a Neo-Gothic roof, leading Amédée Papineau to jokingly refer to it as “the dungeon”. The feudal character of the estate was reinforced with the construction of a henhouse with a pigeon coop at the top of the escarpment, overlooking the river, on the site of the present-day tea pavilion. According to feudal law, a pigeon coop symbolized the authority of the seigneur. The library was designed to safeguard Papineau's impressive collection of books, and to house an office for the safekeeping of seigneury archives and for receiving censitaires (tenant farmers).

The fact that Louis-Joseph Papineau built “Monte-Bello” more for his descendants than for himself once again says something about his personality. He was apparently open to suggestions – the angle of the roof of the manor, the observation deck, the unique veranda and the iconography on the balcony on the south wall are features that are the result of decidedly important remarks made by his son Amédée. Also of note is that both Papineau and his son chose to use national symbols as decorative elements, namely the beaver and the crown of maple leaves.


The outbuildings

In addition to the manor house, the seigneurial estate originally included a number of outbuildings, many of which are still standing today. They were all built in the 19th century and strongly evoke the various eras of the former Papineau estate.

The granary, built in 1855, was initially used to store grain brought to the seigneur by censitaires, who paid their rent and dues in kind. The building was conveniently located on the estate, near the gate to Cape Road, which served as the manor's service road.

The granary is a brick structure built on a stone foundation and topped with a gable roof supported by Neo-Gothic brackets. On the front, the roof has a small garret topped by a spire and a weather vane.

The interior of the granary includes a basement accessible only from the outside, the main floor and a roomy attic with access via an indoor staircase. Louis-Joseph Papineau's son-in-law, artist Napoléon Bourassa, had his studio on the upper floor of the granary between 1858 and 1871. This room is of particular interest because its walls and ceiling are still covered with fresco-style drawings and paintings.

In 1880, Amédée Papineau had a building constructed near the manor house to serve as the family museum. The rectangular shape of the building is a Neo-Classical design and it has a gabled roof. Each of the gabled ends of the roof forms a broken pediment. Composed of girders supporting the ridge beam, the structural frame consists of trusses in the form of Saint-Andrew's crosses, which allows for a greater volume inside the building. All of the walls of the family museum are brick, except for the façade, which is stone and has two Neo-Roman features: a full-centre arch doorway topped by an unusual-looking three-paned window framed by colonnettes.

Around 1920, the Papineau family began to empty the museum of the various objects they had accumulated there and that can be seen in eloquent period photographs. The building was then apparently used as a gymnasium.

In 1935, it was turned into an Anglican church – Christ Church – and continues to be used as such today.

The tea pavilion is associated with the Papineau family both in terms of its foundation, laid during the time of Louis-Joseph Papineau, and its wooden frame that dates back to the time of his son Amédée. In 1860, Louis-Joseph Papineau had a stone henhouse-pigeon coop built and in 1887 a greenhouse was built over the same foundation. Around 1913, the upper part of the greenhouse was demolished and the remainder became the tea pavilion. The building has been repaired numerous times since then. Its square wood frame exceeds the masonry foundation on three sides. Today, the pavilion, which resembles the upper part of an Italianate tower, consists of: a wainscoted base supporting four glassed-in sides framed between pilasters. It has a canopied roof that was topped with a crowning balustrade, which was recently removed. Inside, the pavilion has a boarded ceiling. The masonry foundation is built on a rock outcrop. The tea pavilion is representative of all the phases of the Papineaus' occupancy of the estate, but particularly the period just before the estate was sold, when the family would relax and drink tea in the pavilion during the summer.

One of Louis-Joseph's sons, Gustave Papineau, died at the manor house in December 1851 and was buried in the parish church. This death in the family inspired Louis-Joseph and Amédée Papineau with the idea of building a family mausoleum, the present-day funeral chapel*. It was built of stone in 1853-1854, in a style described at the time as “rustic Gothic”, as seen in the corner buttresses flanking the façade, the pointed arch entrance and the design of the frame that incorporates the pointed arch, the false ceiling boss, and the ever-present plasterwork décor (brackets, consoles, statuettes, relief paintings, columns, etc.). The chapel was designed by Amédée Papineau and its construction was overseen by either his father or himself.

Six generations of the Papineau family have been buried either in the crypt or in the small cemetery beside the chapel. Various maintenance projects carried out during the 1900s have not affected the integrity of this exceptional building. The funeral chapel is a concrete representation of the symbiosis between the concept of a seigneurial family and that of the seigneury itself, a relationship so close that the body of Joseph Papineau, to whom La Petite-Nation owes its beginnings, was brought from Montréal to be buried here, in spite of the fact that the Papineau family had strong roots in Montréal, reinforcing the symbolism of the “founding family” of a dynasty of seigneurs.

The chapel still has all its original furnishings, including a Neo-Gothic altar and accessories, a large number of mostly plaster statues, high-relief plaster detailing and funeral plaques. Handed over to Heritage Canada in 1974, the funeral chapel was classified as a cultural asset the following year. A local community group, the Société historique Louis-Joseph-Papineau, is responsible for the chapel and opens it to visitors.

The kiosk (former campanile) dates back to 1880. Its structure, form and even function were directly inspired by the work of Andrew Jackson Downing. It was one of Amédée Papineau's initiatives and was originally situated near the north-east corner of the manor house as a tower to house the bell of the first church donated to the fabrique (parish council) by Louis-Joseph and Julie Papineau in 1821. The bell tower and its bell marked important moments in life at the manor house until at least 1903, i.e. until the death of Amédée Papineau. It was moved to the northeast corner of the lawn in front of the manor house in 1929-1930. A rustic bench was added and it was then used as a kiosk.

Near the present-day northeast entrance gate to the estate is the gardener's cottage* – this brick “gothic cottage” as it was jokingly referred to by Papineau's eldest son, was constructed in 1855 and served as living quarters for the gardener, who controlled access to the estate. It resembles the English cottages that were fashionable at the time. Louis-Joseph Papineau became interested in building the cottage in 1852 and possibly renting it out. He decided otherwise, however, and used it as living quarters for the gardener, locating it close to the park entrance so that the gardener could control access to the estate. At that time he had already chosen the type of windows for the cottage, diamond-paned windows – a style he had seen in England. The outside of the cottage has changed very little. Members of the Papineau family have lived in it at various times over the years. In 1930 the Seigniory Club began renovating the interior, adding a kitchen, and it became the living quarters for the private club's general manager and his family. It has continued to be used as such to the present day, which explains why it was not included in the transfer of property in 1993.

The present stable* was built after 1963; only the masonry foundation dates back to the time of the Papineau family. This lower level was used as barn for livestock. The stable we see today is the third to have been built on the same foundation.

Archaeological resources

The site's archaeological resources provide strong support for the main period covered by the commemorative intent. The architectural changes made to the manor house during the time of Louis-Joseph Papineau are archaeologically documented by the building's structural elements, as well as by stratigraphic contexts and artefacts located nearby (the dump site and other sites).

Numerous archaeological indicators are still present on the grounds of the national historic site and in the surrounding area –indicators that attest to Seigneur Louis-Joseph Papineau's design of his estate. Vestiges of changes made to certain buildings and to how they were used over the years are still evident: the granary, the gardener's cottage* and shed*, and the funeral chapel* and small cemetery*. These and vestiges of buildings no longer standing, such as the miller's house*, the mill*, the farmhouse* located near the entrance to the horse pasture*, a sugar shack*, several barns*... are all a testament to Papineau's vision for his estate.

The greenhouse built by Louis-Joseph Papineau on the south wall of the manor shows his interest in horticulture and consequently the importance he attached to the landscaping of his estate.

Furthermore, many of the site's archaeological resources are associated with landscaping features (vestiges of paths, road, trails and stairways; remains of bridges and foot bridges*, meadows*, fences* and gates*; vestiges of gardens, flower beds, a fountain, a grotto, beaver and fish ponds, a dike and a waterfall, drainage systems, etc.).

Other archaeological resources reveal certain aspects of the Papineau family's life on their estate. To date, research shows that the estate was carefully maintained by the family over the second half of the 19th century. This no doubt shows their desire to project an “image of distinction” to visitors and to the inhabitants of the seigneury and the surrounding area. We can therefore assume that various dumps sites would have been located on the estate for the disposal of garbage and waste. Several trenches throughout the wooded area northeast of the manor house may have served as landfill sites for the content of latrines, which had to be emptied regularly before flush toilets were installed at the end of the 19th century.

Some of the architectural and stratigraphic remains are indicative of the comfortable lifestyle of the Papineau family, before the advent of modern conveniences, and of the basic necessities of everyday life. An example of this is the impressive stone remains of the icehouse situated to the north-east of the manor house. There are also resources associated with the way in which existing buildings and landscaping elements were used after the death of Louis-Joseph Papineau, as well as structures (museum, tea pavilion, campanile/ kiosk, manor house annex) and landscaping features (trails, plantings, fountain) that were subsequently added, by Amédée Papineau in particular. Finally, resources associated with heating, lighting, and the water and sewers systems, all essential to life at the manor house, should not be forgotten.

The archaeological collection includes construction materials, some of which were damaged by a fire in 1892, pieces of hardware, and objects associated with cooking (dishes, earthenware and stoneware containers, bottles...), gardening (flower pots, soil and plant samples), personal hygiene and leisure activities.

Some of the items in the collection reveal information about areas around the manor house: the greenhouse built on its south wall, the icehouse, the garden located to the south of Cape Road, and the area between the manor house and the granary.


Ethnological heritage

Major collections of objects and archives have been identified that marked life at the manor house at the time of Louis-Joseph Papineau, and particularly around the late 19th and early 20th centuries. A good number of these objects, still owned by descendants of the Papineau family, collectors and antique dealers, have been donated to Parks Canada. Some of the objects from the manor house are in institutions or museums, and are available on loan or for reproduction purposes.

To date, a list of more than 800 objects from these various collections has been drawn up. These objects have enabled us to recreate the context of family life in a seigneurial manor. The artefacts have increased our knowledge of the furnishings that were on the main floor and part of the upper floor, with many details of articles such as paintings, silverware, glassware and personal objects that were present in this bourgeois residence.

Other pieces have been identified in various locations in the Château Montebello hotel, in particular two statues (one “Indian” and one “Diane”) that once adorned the entrance to the museum and were part of the site's landscaping décor. An additional 33 objects belong to or are being held by the Société historique Louis-Joseph-Papineau in Montebello.

The Parks Canada collection is composed of pieces of furniture, accessories, decorative elements and garments from the site. The collection also includes a number of documents (posters, maps, cadastres) that provide information about, for example, the administration of the seigneury. At the present time, the collection includes 74 objects that relate to the site's commemorative intent. A group of 482 objects (pieces of furniture, light fixtures, pictorial works, rugs, draperies, mirrors, knick-knacks, and reading, writing and handicraft materials), cannot, for the time being, be associated with the commemorative intent and have been identified as property once belonging to the Seigniory Club. The value of these items has yet to be determined.


1.3 Messages of national historic significance (Level 1)

At the Manoir Papineau National Historic Site of Canada, messages conveying the national historic significance of the site have been developed around five basic components drawn directly from the commemorative intent described earlier. These more general messages are aimed primarily at the general public and are as follows:

  • The life and work of Louis-Joseph Papineau after he left the political scene represent his pursuit of certain ideals, his way of thinking and his tastes.
  • The architecture of the Manoir Papineau reflects the social ambitions, tastes and personality of Louis-Joseph Papineau.
  • The “Monte-Bello” estate was designed and developed by Louis-Joseph Papineau according to his vision of an ideal estate.
  • Louis-Joseph Papineau saw the seigneurial system as one of the foundations of the French-Canadian identity.
  • The Papineau family played a significant role in creating the estate.

To give visitors to the site a clearer understanding of the above messages of national historic significance, the following components will be developed in greater detail:

  • Louis-Joseph Papineau's role as defender of French-Canadian culture and institutions.
  • The symbolic value of the manor house and outbuildings as they relate to seigneurial tenure.
  • Papineau's views on the seigneurial regime.
  • The context surrounding the abolition of the seigneurial regime.
  • Louis-Joseph Papineau, 19th century thinker and man of culture, as reflected in the size and diversity of his personal library.
  • Louis-Joseph Papineau and the location of his estate.
  • Landscaping principles of the time that inspired Papineau.
  • The aesthetic value that Papineau attached to the physical environment of the estate: stylistic and functional features of the various components of the estate.
  • The architectural design of the manor house: the uniqueness of its picturesque composition; stylistic features of the manor and the layout of the rooms.
  • Operation of the La Petite-Nation seigneury by Papineau.
  • The ways in which Papineau involved members of his immediate family in developing the estate.
  • Papineau's handing down of the estate to the next generation.

Map 2: Location of the main cultural resources

Location of the Main Cultural Resources
Map 2: Location of the main cultural resources — Text version

This map outlines the location of cultural resources at Maison Papineau National Historic Site. Resources listed include archaeological sites, outbuildings and the manor house.

The communications challenge

The main concern in presenting the Manoir Papineau National Historic Site of Canada is how to convey the site's heritage values through an external interpretation and messaging program centred around specific themes. The history of the site is imbued with Louis-Joseph Papineau's notoriety – he is best known as a politician and as leader of the Patriotes and to a lesser extent as seigneur of La Petite-Nation.

Recommendations of the Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada clearly state that Papineau's political career should be commemorated on the site of his Bonsecours Street residence in Montréal, while his life after leaving politics should be presented at Montebello. Nevertheless, Papineau was still the same man after 1846, and pursued the same political and social ideals. In the interest of the general public and visitors alike, it is essential that this continuity be expressed, although it need not be emphasized.

The message conveyed with respect to architecture is relatively complex. It will be a considerable challenge to explain how the manor house's architecture is a reflection of Papineau's social ambitions, tastes and personality without eclipsing the role played by the family or neglecting the influence of Amédée Papineau and the family in the building of the estate.

One of the major difficulties will be to bring out the multiple facets of a man who shone in such diverse areas: architect of a spacious manor, designer of the ideal estate, man of culture, great defender of the French-Canadian people and the seigneurial system, head of an illustrious family...

Finally, we need to introduce visitors to the concepts of “a seigneurial estate” and “a seigneury” and how they are linked to the present-day national historic site.

In other words, the problems involved in presenting the site's history lie primarily in how to adopt a messaging approach that respects the spirit of the site and meets the main expectations of the visitors.


1.4 The site's other heritage values (Level 2)

There are other resources and heritage values that, while not recognized as being of national historic or architectural significance, do have important meaning for the site; these are said to be “level 2” resources. Only resources that are partially or completely located within the property granted by lease to Parks Canada are included on this list.

Recent history of the site: The Seignory Club Era

The former seigneurial estate, with the exception of the funeral chapel and the wrought-iron fence surrounding it, was auctioned off in September 1929 and subsequently resold to Lucerne-in-Québec Community Association Limited. The manor house and outbuildings were converted into a private holiday resort by Seigniory Club Community Association Limited in 1933. Canadian Pacific acquired the resort in 1949.

In 1929-1930 the Seigniory Club made a number of significant changes to the Monte-Bello estate: they constructed a roundwood hotel (the “Log Château”) and service buildings, and laid out a garden city in the formerly uninhabited part of the estate. The hotel was built at a time when Canadian vacation resorts were being developed, and the presence of the hotel contributed to a boom in the region's tourist trade.

The most significant elements that attest to the presence of the Seigniory Club – the Château Montebello and its main outbuildings – are situated outside the boundaries of the national historic site. On the actual site, only the landscaping elements created by the Seigniory Club are rated “level 2”, mainly because of their physical value and historical association. In fact, the Seigniory Club kept most of the landscaping as it was when it acquired the estate from the Papineau family, as can be seen in the numerous archaeological remains; it did however, take away some of the cachet of the estate's landscape by converting the vegetable garden to lawn and by eliminating many of the flower beds.

The Seigniory Club made some visible changes on the cape in that they laid down paving stones on some of the existing trails and created others. On the escarpments, mainly those to the south, the Seigniory Club built retaining walls for new terraces and trails or simply stabilized existing ones. At the foot of the cape and in the park, footpaths and bridlepaths were created. In the area immediately adjoining the historic site, the era of the Seigniory Club can be seen in the gates and guardhouses at both the entrance to Manor House Road and at the west end of Cape Road.

The Seigniory Club also modified the interior creating an atmosphere of luxury that seriously architecture of the manor house, transform-altered the sobriety of the décor preferred by ing the family residence into a recreational Papineau; on the upper floor most of the facility for its new owners, the club members. space occupied by guest bedrooms became The impact of the Seigniory Club era can be a ballroom; in the basement a billiard room seen in the interior layout and decorating of and a mock Elizabethan tavern replaced the the rooms. The rooms on the main floor were servants' quarters and part of the kitchen and adorned with friezes, moulding and domes, service rooms.

Cultural resources associated with paleo-history

The presence of Amerindians on the site during the paleohistoric period has been confirmed at least two separate locations (83G1B and 83G1C). The presence of artefacts Footnote 13suggests that stone objects were made on the site.

These discoveries suggest that similar vestiges may be found in other parts of the national historic site.

Ties with the local community and surrounding area

Since 1935, the old Papineau family museum has been used as an Anglican church. The Christ Church chapel, along with St. Mathew's and the Holy Trinity church, serve the Anglican parish of Grenville-Calumet-Montebello.

The Manoir Papineau National Historic Site of Canada has other partnership ties with numerous individuals and organizations, some of whom have played an appreciable role in promoting, protecting and presenting the site.

Parks Canada's main partner is Fairmont – Le Château Montebello. The two organizations share in activities designed to protect the site's resources. Heritage Canada, owner of the funeral chapel, has left the management of the chapel to the Société historique Louis-Joseph-Papineau. The Municipality of Montebello, through the Corporation de la Gare de Montebello, plays a role in the promotion and marketing of the site. The Outaouais Regional Tourist Association also collaborates in promoting and marketing the site. Lastly, descendants of the Papineau family (Renée and Jacqueline Papineau, and Anne Bourassa) have proven to be valuable collaborators by sharing their knowledge of the Papineau family. The support provided by each of these individuals and organizations has contributed to the community's sense of ownership of the Manoir Papineau National Historic Site of Canada.

Further commemoration

Since 1975 the Papineau manor house and the funeral chapel have been designated cultural assets under the Loi sur les biens culturels du Québec.

National and regional networks

The Manoir Papineau National Historic Site of Canada is an integral part of the network of national historic sites and as such is a valuable commemorative component of that part of our heritage associated with great Canadian politicians.

The site is also part of a group of regional heritage resources that includes Château Montebello (network of heritage hotels), Montebello Station, the home of Henri Bourassa, Montebello Church and presbytery, Plaisance Park (Québec government), Plaisance Falls Historical Site and the Plaisance Heritage Interpretation Centre.

The Manoir Papineau National Historic Site is associated with other historic sites through the various themes represented at the site. Its “seigneurial regime theme” is common to such sites as Manoir-Mauvide-Genest on the Island of Orléans, the Île Perrot mill, Manoir-Dionne in Saint-Roch-des-Aulnaies, Manoir-Joly-De Lotbinière, Manoir-Rouville-Campbell in Mont-Saint-Hilaire and Manoir-Hazen in Iberville. The “politician theme” is also found at Papineau's Montréal residence on Bonsecours Street (Louis-Joseph Papineau National Historic Site of Canada) and the Maison nationale des Patriotes in Saint-Denis. The “landscaping theme” is repeated at the Cataraqui and Bois-de-Coulonge estates in Sillery and Dundurn Castle (national historic site) in Hamilton.


2.0 Analysis of the current situation

2.1 Ownership

According to the 1993 agreement reached between Parks Canada and Canadian Pacific Hotels Corporation (Fairmont – Le Château Montebello), the land surrounding Cape Bonsecours and other parcels of land located here and there along Manor House Road and Cape Road were transferred to Parks Canada in the form of long-term lease that expires in 2035. The funeral chapel and adjacent cemetery remained under the jurisdiction of Heritage Canada, while Fairmont – Le Château Montebello kept the gardener's cottage as well as other sections of land deemed necessary for its hotel operations. Several old buildings and certain areas with strong archaeological potential therefore do not fall under Parks Canada jurisdiction.


2.2 State of the site's commemorative integrity

As defined in the preceding section, one of the fundamental principles inherent to the concept of commemorative integrity is achieved when the resources that symbolize or characterize the national historic significance of a site are not impaired or threatened.

In the following pages, we will paint a brief picture of the current situation in terms of the cultural and landscape resources that are related to the site's commemorative intent and the conveying of messages of national historic significance.

Condition of the landscape and level-1 resources

Cultural landscape

The cultural landscape of the Manoir Papineau National Historic Site of Canada is based on the layout of the estate property at the time of the Papineau family, on a Picturesque style of landscaping, and on the close relationship between the landscaping elements and the site's geography.

Today, the landscape has preserved its original configuration; however, several important components are situated outside of the property transferred to Parks Canada, including the entrance gate to the estate, the gardener's cottage, the funeral chapel, the stable, the barn meadow and the riverbank. On Cape Bonsecours, nature has gradually taken over, with increasingly invasive vegetation obstructing viewpoints over the Ottawa River and the barn meadow. Furthermore, interventions by occupants of the estate after the Papineau family have altered the landscape; for example, Cape Road has been paved and the route it followed has been changed, the hedge and the road south of the manor house have been eliminated and tennis courts have been built where the barn meadow once was. While several large trees continue to provide shade over the lawns, the bountiful flower beds and vegetable gardens along the river side of Cape Road are but a memory. Overall, stripped of all its outdoor furnishings and decorative elements, the estate has lost the rustic and picturesque cachet that can be seen in old photographs.


Built heritage

The state of the manor house and outbuildings at the time they were transferred to Parks Canada is the result of modifications that were made as the utilization of the buildings changed. However, these changes have not seriously compromised their integrity. Physically speaking, the state of conservation of the buildings varies: the manor house, as a result of recent conservation/restoration work, is in good condition: the granary requires some conservation work; the museum must be converted back to its original use; and the survival of the tea pavilion is uncertain. All in all, there is still considerable work to be done to completely rehabilitate the site and to achieve its commemorative integrity.

The original structure of the seigneurial manor house is intact, but its outside appearance has changed as a result of various repairs. In 1979, the main roof was replaced, the siding on the octagonal towers was changed and the main part of the building, including the square tower, was covered with roughcast and painted. These repairs solved some urgent water seepage problems, but because they were carried out without sufficient historical knowledge of the residence they did not entirely respect the integrity of the building.

Before the first conservation/restoration work was begun in 1999, the seigneurial manor had the following significant technical problems:

  • The stone masonry foundation had to be restored and it was imperative that a drainage system be installed around the building since water seepage had resulted in structural damage to the basement floor. The exterior window frames and trim, especially on the south side and on the corner towers, were in very poor condition. The east tower was leaning considerably due to modifications made to its structure in 1930. The latrine tower also had a tendency to lean and its roof needed to be redone. The annex built in 1880 showed serious problems with its roof, brick walls (covered with roughcast) and woodwork. Water had severely damaged the chimney stacks and the actual chimneys. The veranda, stairs and railings also showed signs of significant deterioration.
  • Inside, the basement service rooms had been completely modified; the wood floor had been replaced with slate flagstones and a heating system took up part of the space originally occupied by the kitchen. The main floor had been “redecorated” with the addition of false ceilings, a new wood floor, heating cabinets under the windows and moulding; however, except for the wallpaper, which had disappeared almost entirely, the layout and decoration of the rooms had been largely preserved.
  • Installation of electrical and mechanical systems in 1930 had resulted in damage to parts of the building's frame. These systems did not meet 1999 safety and comfort standards.

Work carried out since then has largely corrected these problems (See Protection and Presentation of the Site). However, on the bedroom level, untouched by the work done in 1999, the original layout was largely modified in 1930 when part of the long hallway and several bedrooms were converted into a ballroom. All the original woodwork, including the floor, have been also been replaced. The roof of the manor house has to be solidified because the frame was modified for the construction of the ballroom.

Emergency repairs were made to the granary in 1998. Conservation of the fresco-style drawings and paintings on the walls and ceiling is problematic; stabilizing work was carried out to keep their deterioration to a minimum, but a complete restoration remains to be done. The greatly deteriorated metal roofing was allowing water to leak in and had to be temporarily covered with a waterproof membrane.

The brick walls and stone foundation of the granary are generally well preserved, but repairs are still necessary. On the front of the building, the entrance steps and small balcony are in poor condition and the wooden stairway along the north gable wall has disappeared.

The family museum is in very good condition, except for the stone façade that is breaking away from the lateral brick walls. The raised roof and interior renovations have, however, altered the integrity of the building.

Of all the buildings that have survived, the tea pavilion is the most deteriorated and by far the most threatened; at this point it can be saved, but water seepage continues to damage the entire exterior wood wall on the river side; repairs must be made before the entire wall disintegrates.

Lastly, it is important to note that the frame and shingle roof of the kiosk (old campanile) are showing signs of rot.


Archaeological resources

The site's archaeological resources are generally in good condition, particularly the old landscaping elements (1850-1930) around the manor (Cape Road, Manor House Road, the road encircling the estate, the road between the manor and the granary, the path leading to the campanile, old fountains, water and drainage systems, etc.). This can be explained by the fact that the Seigniory Club, which acquired the site in 1930, did not destroy them, but covered them instead with a layer of soil on which the new landscaping elements were added.

National erosion has nonetheless considerably deteriorated the area to the west of the present tea pavilion, where a rest area had been laid out in the 1920s (the terrace around the sundial and the original trail, located at the base of the steps leading to the rest area, have completely disappeared). To the west of the rest area, traces of the gravel path leading to the garden have nonetheless resisted the ravages of time and nature fairly well. All this area, however, has been overrun with rich vegetation over the past few years, concealing the old landscaping components.

The imposing and relatively well preserved remains of the stone icehouse built north of Manor House Road, in the last curve of the road before arriving at the manor house, have been overrun with the roots of trees that have grown along the length of the walls and even inside the structure; these roots threaten to form cracks in the masonry. Lastly, it should be mentioned that the northern portion of the Papineaus' garden, located to the southwest of the manor house, was destroyed for the most part by landscaping work done by the Seigniory Club.

The archaeological collection consists of some 4,000 objects and ecofacts recovered during excavations and other Parks Canada interventions. All the preliminary processing of the materials has been done (registering, cleaning, labelling and numbering) and a summary inventory has been completed. This material remains to be analyzed.


Ethnological collection

The ethnological collection consists of 800 objects that belonged to the Papineau family. The objects have been catalogued and labelled, and the inventory has been completed. A total of 256 objects remain to be documented.

The physical condition of this collection ranges from “very good” to “satisfactory”. To preserve these items, particular care must be taken when storing and monitoring them, given the type of materials involved (veneer furniture, textiles, paintings on canvas, paper or silvered paper, metal objects, etc.). Many of these items, particularly the furniture, have been restored or will need to be in the near future, given their commemorative value.

Map 3: Current status

Current Status 
Map 3: Current status — Text version

This map shows the current status of the site's level-1 cultural resources.


Communicating messages of the site's national historic importance

After having closed the site to the public over the 2000 season because of conservation/ restoration work, Manoir Papineau re-opened its doors in the summer of 2001. To date, presentation efforts have focussed on evoking the life of the Papineau family through the decorating and furnishings of the elegant main floor. Visitors can now take a guided tour of the manor house (main floor only) that focuses on the history of the building and its occupants, and everyday family life at the time of the Papineaus.

A small thematic exhibition of the Montebello seigneury has been set up on the first floor of the granary; for safety reasons, the public still does not have access to Napoléon Bourassa's former workshop. Visitors can tour the funeral chapel accompanied by guides from the Société d'histoire Louis-Joseph-Papineau, but the tea pavilion is not open to the public. The old family museum, used primarily as an Anglican church, is accessible to the public during talks given by Parks Canada interpretive guides. On-site facilities and interpretive services are therefore still limited and incomplete Footnote 14.

Furthermore, it is important to note that changes that occurred over the years in how the family museum and granary were used, combined with major changes made to landscaping elements, have meant that these resources have lost their significance as a whole and therefore do not contribute to conveying the commemorative theme as they should.

Lastly, it is important to mention that external messaging efforts have until now been achieved essentially through an internet site set up in 1999.


2.3 Condition of the environment

A biophysical inventory of the Papineau estate was conducted in 1994; it described the natural environment of the property and made recommendations for its preservation. The inventory shows that the historic site is situated in a region where the temperate climate is the mildest in Québec. The bioclimatic domain is that of sugar maple-basswood and sugar maple-hickory groves.

After the last ice age, the Ottawa River was a powerful waterway that played a decisive role in shaping the landscape. As its river bed has remained wide and its flow strong, it has eroded the forms that it had previously shaped, to the extent that on the north shore today we find a stepped landscape: first, flat sandy banks along the river, then pre-Cambrian hills that skirt the valley to the west beginning several hundred metres from the bank.

The rock base of the site is part of a Proterozoic formation composed of marble and calc-silicate rock. An outcrop of this rock is seen on Cape Bonsecours, which is partially covered with glacial till. Around the cape are deposits of sand carried by the present-day river, and marine clay and sand from a glacial river delta located near the town of Montebello. Only unfertile regosols have managed to develop on these relatively recent deposits. Papineau Stream, crosses the site, its mouth located at the eastern end of the estate.

Woodlands cover more than half of the area of the Manoir Papineau National Historic Site of Canada. They are exceptionally diverse if you consider that over an area of several hundred square metres there are four maple groves, a stand of hemlock spruce, a pine forest and two communities of various deciduous species. The woods surrounding Cape Bonsecours is dominated by populations of varying ages. Although the forest is natural, it has not reached an evolutionary equilibrium. It is the result of natural and human disturbances that affected the site over a century ago.

The trees on the national historic site are representative of the ecoregion surrounding it in that no rare woody species are found. In terms of individual species, several specimens of red oak, cottonwood and silver maple have reached a respectable age and size and are in excellent health. The January 1998 ice storm damaged close to 80 percent of the trees to varying degrees. Nevertheless, only several trees had to be removed because of the extent of damage. An inventory of endangered plant species was conducted at the national historic site in 2002 and in the proximity of the funeral chapel a species was found that appears on a list of species that will likely be designated as “endangered or vulnerable” by the Québec department of the environment: the Downy-Rattlesnake plantain (Goodyera pubescens), an orchid typically found in drywood habitats. Two other plants, the Asa Gray sedge and cat-tail sedge, have also been identified; these species are not presently considered to be vulnerable or endangered in Québec, but are very rare.

Human-caused disturbances have been limited to the landscaping elements near the manor, as well as Manor House Road and the network of trails on the site.

Wildlife is not abundant on the site. Its southern location makes it a good environment for animals, but the open nature of the woods limits the quality and quantity of habitats. There are, nevertheless, several bird species that can be observed, as well as some small mammals, such as chipmunks and grey squirrels. Papineau Stream is a potential habitat for fish, amphibians and small reptiles.


2.4 Public visitation and use

Present clientele

In 2004, 15,463 visitors came to the Manoir Papineau National Historic Site of Canada. The last visitor survey was conducted in 1994, prior to restoration of the manor house. At that time, nearly seven out of ten visitors (68%) were from Québec. Of that number, 40% lived in the Montréal area and 16% were from the Outaouais region. Visitors from outside the province therefore represented 32% of the clientele. The majority of the visitors were adults (78%) with an above-average level of education. The visitors were 75% French-speaking.

The next visitor survey is planned for 2005 and the results will be taken into account in the next management plan review.


Current service offer

The Manoir Papineau National Historic Site of Canada is open seasonally from May to October. Visitors are charged an admission fee; Château Montebello clients, however, are admitted at no charge in accordance with the long-term lease that stipulates that hotel residents may have free access to the site to enjoy outdoor activities Footnote 15.

Since it was taken over by Parks Canada in April 1993, the site has undergone selective improvements to provide visitors with a minimum of comfort, to ensure public safety, to provide personnel with satisfactory working conditions and to improve the quality of the visitors' experience at the site. From an operational standpoint, various adjustments have been made: the location of ticket sales, the schedule and duration of the guided tours, and improvements made to the content of messages conveyed to the public as progress is made in historical and ethnographic research. Some temporary work has also been done, such as setting up a ticket counter at the Montebello station Footnote 16 and in the granary, and adding a path between the station and Manor House Road.

For the time being, the visitor capacity of the site is highly dependant on the visitor capacity of the manor house, which is the main focus of the site; the manor acts as a bottleneck. For safety reasons, no more than 60 persons are allowed inside the manor at one time.

The particular location of the Manoir Papineau National Historic Site, hemmed in by property owned by Fairmont – Le Château Montebello and the Municipality of Montebello, has posed a major problem for the site's accessibility and visibility. Traditional access to Manoir Papineau via the main gate and Manor House Road is currently impossible because these grounds are fenced in and are located outside the boundaries of the national historic site. This explains why site access has until now been via two entry points that are outside Parks Canada property.


Access via Montebello station

Montebello station serves as a visitor reception centre; there is a trail from the station to Manor House Road. It should be noted that Montebello station is also used as a tourist information centre for the Outaouais Regional Tourist Association. The parking area at Montebello station is presently insufficient and there are no parking places reserved exclusively for visitors to the national historic site. Furthermore, the distance between the station and the manor house is nearly half a kilometre and there is currently no shuttle service.


Access via the entrance to Château Montebello

It is also possible to reach the historic site via the paved road (old Cape Road) that links the hotel complex to the manor house. Theoretically, this access is limited to clients of the hotel who obviously are allowed to park in the Château Montebello parking area. Even if signs indicate the presence of the Manoir Papineau National Historic Site of Canada, most of the time it is by chance that passersby discover the site.

Partnerships

Setting up partnership agreements is a management strategy prioritized by Parks Canada. At the Manoir Papineau National Historic Site of Canada, various forms of partnership with public, private and non-profit organizations are involved in managing the site.


Fairmont Hotel – Le Château Montebello

The Fairmont Hotel – Le Château Montebello is Parks Canada's primary stakeholder at Montebello. The long-term lease agreement between Parks Canada and the hotel forms the legal basis for the relations between the two organizations in terms of property, access and visitor traffic. A service contract has also been negotiated under which Château Montebello oversees the upkeep of the property around the manor house and takes care of surveillance of the grounds.


Société historique Louis-Joseph Papineau

The Société historique Louis-Joseph Papineau is also an important partner: its association with Parks Canada is in the form of providing visitor services at the funeral chapel and sharing historical information. Parks Canada provides the society with logistical support in the organization of its activities.


Outaouais Regional Tourism Association

The Outaouais Regional Tourism Association signed a memorandum of understanding with Parks Canada and takes care of reception services and ticket sales for the historic site at the Montebello station, where it has a tourist information office that specifically serves the “La Lièvre et la Petite-Nation” subregion. This set-up will remain in place as long as these services can be provided by the tourist association.


Municipality of Montebello

The Municipality of Montebello is a valuable partner with whom Parks Canada exchanges visitor services. In fact, the site's temporary parking area is located on municipal property and the same is true of its signage. Parks Canada has supported the municipality, specifically the Corporation de la Gare de Montebello, in the building of the reception area inside the station.


2.5 Regional tourism and the strategic position of the site

At the heart of the “La Lièvre et la Petite-Nation” tourist region, tourism – especially upscale resort tourism and, thanks to the presence of Château Montebello, business and convention tourism – is the second most important economic activity after the forest industry.

Following the example of the Château Montebello, the region projects the image of a destination where people can enjoy nature and relax, in addition to enjoying a variety of outdoor activities. Two types of tourist services are offered: the first in the immediate area around Montebello, where high-end accommodations and restaurants designed for wealthier tourists are found, and the second in La Petite-Nation backcountry, where a more diverse range of nature-related activities are offered (campgrounds, bed and breakfasts, etc.).

The tourist profile of the La Petite-Nation region differs from that of the Outaouais region in general; it attracts a higher percentage of resort vacationers and clientele for luxury business accommodations, undoubtedly because of the presence of Château Montebello, which receives some 80,000 overnight visitors annually. There is therefore not an “integration” of the La Petite-Nation tourist clientele within the tourist population of the larger Outaouais region.

Montebello enjoys an excellent reputation; the stature of the renowned Château Montebello resort hotel combined with the tourist information centre (set up several years ago) has earned Montebello the name “Gateway to the Outaouais”, particularly for the Montréal tourist market. The tourist information bureau is operated by the Outaouais Regional Tourism Association and receives some 50,000 visitors annually.

The Manoir Papineau National Historic Site of Canada has established itself as the only noteworthy cultural and heritage site in the “La Lièvre et la Petite-Nation” region and has no competing sites in its niche. Together with the Museum of Civilization in Gatineau and the Mackenzie-King Estate, the Manoir Papineau National Historic Site of Canada constitutes one of the chief heritage assets of the Outaouais region.

A tour of the grounds and the on-site interpretation activities offer a meaningful experience worthy of a half-day stop for tourists; an added visit to a nearby natural attraction would occupy an entire day of a visitor's program. The Manoir Papineau National Historic Site of Canada, Château Montebello and Montebello Station together form a major tourist attraction “trio” at the gateway to the Outaouais region.

As in many other regions, the tourist trade has been identified as one of the area's economic driving forces that merit special attention. The region would like to attract more destination tourists by expanding the range of tourist products and services available and by giving the La Petite-Nation region a corporate image. A number of organizations have taken a keen interest in the development of regional tourism, including:

  • the Municipalité régionale de comté (MRC) de Papineau, through its development plan, with cultural tourism a primary focus;
  • the Corporation de la Gare de Montebello, one of its mandates being to organize tourist events;
  • the Outaouais Regional Tourist Association, which reviewed its tourist development plan for the Outaouais region;
  • the Local Development Centre (LDC) Footnote 17, which has participated in creating tools for publicizing regional tourist information;
  • the Vallée de la Petite-Nation Chamber of Commerce, which is working on creating a regional co-operation and development tool;
  • Château Montebello, leader in resort tourism in the Outaouais region;
  • the Société historique Louis-Joseph-Papineau, which manages the funeral chapel and works toward the conservation and presentation of regional heritage.

The present situation appears conducive to creating a regional co-operative approach to the development of tourism in La Petite-Nation.


3.0 Protection and presentation of the site

Although Manoir Papineau and its outbuildings – with the exception of the tea pavilion – are in a fair state of conservation, and the integrity of these buildings has not been seriously compromised, work must be done to halt the process of deterioration. Measures should also have been taken to convert the manor house from the residence it once was to its present status as a public building so that it would meet strict fire protection and public safety standards while at the same time fulfilling the functional requirements of its new vocation. Conversion of the manor house and, one might say, the entire site, had already been begun by the Seigniory Club. As mentioned earlier, some of these interventions have altered the integrity of the manor as it appeared at the end of the period it was occupied by the Papineau family.

Furthermore, even if the site already attracts numerous visitors (15,463 in 2004, for example), improvements and landscaping work will need to be done in order to tap the site's considerable potential, so that visitors get a better appreciation of its heritage value and have an even more enriching experience.

Because of the heritage value of the site, and the magnitude and complexity of the project at hand, completion of presentation work will require a substantial investment. Given that the original budget allocated for the project will not cover all costs anticipated, it is to be expected that the project will be carried out in phases over a number of years, as funding becomes available.


3.1 Concept of protection and presentation

The concept of protection and presentation of the Manoir Papineau National Historic Site of Canada and the resulting management directions were determined in accordance with heritage-area planning principles adopted by Parks Canada.

Essentially, protection and presentation are based on the commemorative intent that has been defined for the site, thus linking the resources that characterize its national historic significance and the messages that convey that significance.

The concept advocates that presentation of the site be achieved through the overall visitor experience and be based on the main features that give the site its identity. That is why the concept adopted emphasizes the idea of “the spirit of the site”, i.e. the feeling of grandeur and the period ambiance that the site evokes even to this day, together with the ever-felt presence of its designer, Louis-Joseph Papineau, whose life is commemorated here.

This place, away from the public eye, its buildings preserving the history of the Papineau family, has many stories to tell. The site is imbued with memories of Louis-Joseph Papineau – seigneur-builder, family man, “leader of the colony” and man of great culture. It reveals his tastes and his projects and still bears the mark of his ambitions and desire to found a true seigneurial dynasty.

The commemorative intent of the site has, from the beginning, placed Louis-Joseph Papineau at the heart of the presentation project.

Furthermore, presentation of the Papineau estate will revive a traditional regional tourist activity and thus contribute to reaffirming the vocation of the La Petite-Nation region as a true tourist destination.


3.2 Directions and management guidelines

Ensuring the commemorative integrity of the site

The following directions will guide the strategic actions and decisions taken by Parks Canada in managing level 1 resources and in conveying heritage values, specifically with respect to messages that are associated with the commemorative intent of the site.

The directions that appear in bold are seen as indicators of the state of the site's commemorative integrity and are objectives outlined in the commemorative integrity statement.


Built heritage

Parks Canada will respect the estate's original landscaping features, installations and buildings and ensure that a certain degree of historical continuity is preserved in the spatial organization and designation of new uses for these elements. At the same time, it will ensure that all the historical structures be conserved and their architectural integrity maintained, taking into account any meaningful changes that have been made over time.

Lastly, Parks Canada will update the standards of the buildings and rooms that are essential to the smooth operation of the interpretive program, and will make them accessible to visitors. While some actions were taken during the first phase of work carried out in 1999-2000, other interventions will have to wait for additional funding.


The manor house

The architecture of the manor house – its distinct and unique character and the way it evokes the tastes, values and aspirations of Louis-Joseph Papineau – is closely associated with the commemorative intent of the site. The architectural features of the residence will therefore be protected and presented through appropriate conservation and restoration interventions. This work will ensure, above all else, that the following four commemorative integrity objectives are met:

  • to protect the structure and the exterior characteristics of the building that reflect different architectural styles;
  • to protect the details and coherence of the floor plan and of interior woodwork and plasterwork done at the time of the Papineau family;
  • to protect and bring to light the meaningful spatial arrangement of the library tower;
  • to protect the visual and organic relationship between the manor house and its surrounding landscape.

In accordance with the commemorative integrity statement, the concept of conservation and restoration of the manor house proposes to restore the historical integrity of the building envelope, with particular attention to materials and colours, as well as the rooms, so that they reflect Louis-Joseph and Amédée Papineau's plans and the occupancy of the manor house by their families.

Completely open to visitors, the piano nobile, the elegant main floor where family members spent most of their time, has already regained much of the appearance and cachet it had in Louis-Joseph and Amédée Papineau's time; the few decorative details added by the Seigniory Club and not considered meaningful to the history of the residence have been removed. The dining room, Louis-Joseph Papineau's bedroom, the sitting room, the bedrooms of Papineau's two daughters, the entrance hall and the “yellow room” have been decorated and refurnished with the present collection and thanks to articles acquired from the Papineau family. The “blue room” will be refurnished at a later date to reflect changes made by Amédée Papineau. Papineau's reading room adjoining the library, located on the upper floor, will be accessible to small groups of visitors at a time in accordance with public safety standards.

To restore the architectural integrity of the manor in its entirety, Parks Canada would like to complete the period furnishing and decoration of all the rooms significantly used by the Papineau family. This cannot be done, however, until funding becomes available. At a later stage of the project, the upper floor could thus be restored to its original floor plan and sober décor of the time of the Papineau family Footnote 18. We would also hope to restore the basement to its original appearance for purposes of presenting it to site visitors. This is where various service rooms were located: a kitchen, cellars, servants' quarters and a greenhouse. A feasibility study will address that possibility and the results will be considered in the next management plan review. Until that time, the basement will house administrative offices as well as some customer services, such as public washrooms.

The main restoration projects planned or anticipated are outlined below. Work that has already been completed appears in italics.

  • Complete restoration of the building envelope, namely restoration of the masonry foundation walls, returning the walls of the manor and library tower to visible stone; restoration of all the doors and windows and their frames and shutters; solidification of the towers and restoring them to their original vertical plank siding; repair of the walls and replacement of the roof of the annex; restoration of the finishing of all roofing Footnote 19; reconstruction of the gutters and downspouts; restoration of the balcony on the south wall and the veranda; reconstruction of all the chimney stacks.
  • Setting up of administrative offices in the basement and restoration of the period kitchen to its original dimensions and wall finishings. The project would involve building a new floor over the underfloor ventilation space, conservation of the existing original divisions on the south side, and construction of a staffroom and public washrooms.
  • Restoration and reconstruction of the “piano nobile” (main floor) to bring back period decorative elements and furnishings: removal of the false domed ceiling and the decorative panel moulding on the walls Footnote 20; reconstruction of the water closet, pantry and coat closet, and the floors of the greenhouse and vestibule; restoration of the plaster finishing on the walls and eventually restoration of the wallpaper; reconstruction and restoration of the wooden chimney mantles; the wood floor will have to be replaced in the medium term. The large indoor staircase will be returned to its original stain and varnish, and all the woodwork on the upper floor will be restored to its original colours.
  • Review and updating of building standards regarding comfort, safety and accessibility, namely: insulation of the attic floor and making this level into a ventilated attic space, a complete review of the heating and fire protection systems; repairing the electrical system and installation of an elevator in the latrine tower, which would provide universal access up to the main floor. The upper floor will not be universally accessible but will be open to the public once a second exit has been built.
  • Eventual restoration and reconstruction of the upper floor where the guest bedrooms were located, namely: rebuilding the large hallway over the entire width of the building, thus restoring the structural support of the original floor plan, since this wide circulation area was built in the opposite direction to the hallway directly beneath it; restoration of the woodwork and wood floors to reflect the simplicity of the original décor Footnote 21.

The outbuildings

The conservation/restoration work planned for the outbuildings will be less extensive. Since only limited funding is available, only certain aspects of the work will be carried out in the short term. Other than updating the building standards, the work involves the following:

  • Protecting the characteristics of the building envelope and interior of the granary by replacing the present roof with a “Québec style” tin roof, restoring the pigeon coop and the old exterior staircase, as well as renovating the main floor to meet the requirements of its new function as a museum. The studio used by artist Napoléon Bourassa and the fresco-style drawings and paintings will also be preserved.
  • Restoring the characteristics of the building envelope and interior of the old family museum by stabilizing the façade of the lateral walls to prevent further deterioration, by replacing the recent raised roof with metal roofing, as it was originally, and by restoring or renovating the interior to convert it back to its original vocation as a museum.
  • Protecting the characteristics of the kiosk (former campanile) and explaining how it was used, particularly by restoring the kiosk's roof and structure and by moving it back to its original location.
  • Protecting the characteristics of the building envelope and interior of the tea pavilion by restoring it on its original foundations.

Cultural landscape

We know that the landscape designed by the Papineau family has been largely preserved. Generally speaking, Parks Canada's aim is to keep that landscape and modify some recently added elements that clash with the spirit of the site. In accordance with the commemorative integrity statement, the concept adopted for presenting the landscape proposes that the integrity of the area around the manor house be restored so as to reflect the original landscaping work accomplished by Louis-Joseph Papineau and his son Amédée. This means that interventions would be especially concentrated in the Cape Bonsecours area, given that the commemorative intent focuses on Louis-Joseph Papineau as a person and the architecture of his manor house. Illustrating Louis-Joseph and Amédée Papineau's love of horticulture is also part of the presentation concept.

While the most significant interventions involve the area around the manor house, other presentation measures could apply to other parts of the property leased to Parks Canada Footnote 22.


Area in the vicinity of the manor house

The commemorative integrity statement identifies the following objectives with respect to the cultural landscape around the seigneurial manor:

  • to protect certain major landscape elements, including two veteran trees: the tall pine around which a lookout had been built and the oak tree on the front lawn;
  • to protect and restore viewscapes maintained by the Papineau family;
  • to protect vestiges of landscaping accessories (urns, steps, artificial waterfall, etc.);
  • to protect the width and picturesque route followed by Cape Road and the terraces built on the Cape Bonsecours escarpment.

An initial study Footnote 23 has already determined the main interventions required to meet the above objectives. In addition to a restructuring of the landscape around the manor house, the study recommends general pruning work to restore vistas of the river. The study also suggests that Cape Road be resurfaced with granular material, that the loop that extended Cape Road to the south of the manor house be restored and that the road that was added to the west be eliminated; lastly, the study recommends that steps be taken to bring back the old gardens (vegetable gardens and flower beds) and the sundial that once stood near the tea pavilion.

A plan for protecting and presenting the site's cultural landscapes will indicate the work that needs to be done on the grounds around the manor house. Given that the capital budget is presently insufficient, the interventions planned will be undertaken in the longer term once funding becomes available.


Other parts of the property

The commemorative integrity statement identifies the following objectives with respect to the cultural landscape of other parts of the property:

  • to protect the width and picturesque route followed by Manor House Road and the network of trails crisscrossing the estate;
  • to protect the diversity of plant populations.

Subject to an upcoming agreement, upkeep of the estate's presently healthy woodland will be carried out jointly with Château Montebello, with a view to maintaining extensive usage of this area. In particular, veteran trees will be monitored; their survival will be ensured within the limits of practicality and plans will be made to eventually replace them. Furthermore, Parks Canada will still strive to respect the ecological diversity of the estate's natural environmental and where necessary, silvicultural work will be done to maintain the present diversity of the woodland and to encourage the growth of desirable species. A natural resources management plan updated periodically to reflect changes in environmental conditions will indicate the nature of the interventions involved.

The nature and extent of interventions that are required in the various parts of the estate will be outlined in the landscape protection and presentation plan. Generally speaking, the interventions proposed in the plan will have to respect both the spirit and integrity of the site and its heritage character, and will have to take into account measures designed to ensure the protection of archaeological resources.

Cultural resource management policy clearly stipulates that Parks Canada will protect significant components of ecosystems at historic sites in the same way it does for ecosystems in national parks. As a result, the presentation plan will not suggest any interventions that could lead to the deterioration of plant communities of interest, except if that intervention proves to be essential for sound cultural resource management.


Off-site cultural landscapes

With respect to off-site cultural landscapes, i.e. those closely associated with the seigneurial estate but where Parks Canada has no jurisdiction, Parks Canada will work in close collaboration with Château Montebello and Heritage Canada to ensure that they are protected in accordance with objectives outlined in the commemorative integrity statement:

  • to protect the division of the inhabited area of the estate grounds into four areas (the woodland park, the garden, the lawns, the meadows);
  • to raise awareness among Parks Canada's partners and encourage them in their initiatives to protect meaningful landscape elements located on their property.

To achieve the above, Parks Canada will strive to come to an agreement with Château Montebello aimed at keeping the “barn meadow” (already partially obliterated by the tennis courts) and the gardener's cottage meadow free of any other visible structures.


Archaeological vestiges

The archaeological vestiges on the site:

  • are a superb reflection of the ideology underlying the work accomplished by the men who designed the seigneurial estate;
  • are an eloquent testament to certain aspects of a comfortable way of life that was constantly evolving, always with the latest conveniences, particularly with respect to the necessities of the everyday life of a seigneur (icehouses, greenhouses, bread oven, etc.);
  • represent attractions that are complementary to the site's built heritage.

In addition to archaeological monitoring and other appropriate interventions (test excavations, salvage excavations, etc.) that will take place during all excavations and earthwork undertaken on the site, Parks Canada's actions involving archaeological vestiges will focus on the following five objectives:

  • to complete the archaeological inventory and ensure that areas covering vestiges are preserved;
  • to locate the vestiges on the property and maintain their physical integrity; to make visitors aware of the vestiges and their significance;
  • to focus on archaeological exploration in areas covering vestiges that are related to the commemorative intent of the site, notably in the area around the icehouse;
  • to take proper measures to ensure the protection and conservation of paleohistoric sites;
  • to raise awareness among the owners of property that was once part of the seigneurial estate of the importance of identifying and protecting archaeological vestiges situated on their property and to encourage their initiatives in that regard.

Considering that an assessment of the archaeological potential has already been prepared and that various archaeological interventions were carried out prior to presentation work, the next concrete actions, contingent on funding becoming available, would consist of:

  • completing selective brush-clearing as part of the landscaping work, and conducting new exploratory surveys near roads, trails, paths, bridges, stairways and retaining walls that are part of the cultural landscape enhancement program:
  • taking proper measures to preserve the vestiges of the icehouse;
  • completing exploration of the various landscaping elements (garden, flower beds, hedges, etc.);
  • completing exploratory surveys of the zone between the manor house and the granary;
  • exploring, protecting and, if necessary, excavating sites that hold a wealth of information, such as old dump sites;
  • contacting the owners of land located within the original boundaries of the seigneurial estate in order to increase their awareness of the importance of identifying and protecting archaeological vestiges found on their property.

The ethnological collection

In accordance with the presentation concept adopted, the rooms of the manor house that are open to the public have been or will be restored, where possible, using original objects and furnishings from the manor that were purchased from or donated by descendants of the Papineau family or other sources. In selecting pieces of furniture and objects, curators must give priority to those that are essential to conveying the commemorative intent of the site. Until these furnishings and objects can be acquired, Parks Canada will strive to make their present owners aware of the importance of protecting them.

Parks Canada will see to it that collections of objects are preserved and maintained in ideal and secure conditions to ensure that they can be used as effectively as possible as part of the visitor experience. To enhance that experience, visitors will be able to freely enter most of the rooms in the manor house. Since that is the desired approach, the following mitigations will be implemented:

  • interpretive guides will accompany all visitors on their tour of the manor house and make them aware of the importance of protecting the furniture and objects;
  • replicas of the more fragile furnishings and objects will be made and set up in parts of the manor house where visitors are permitted to handle the objects;
  • the furnishings and décor will be an integral part of the historical themes addressed by the interpretive guides.

Messages conveyed relating to the commemorative intent of the site

Conveying the history of the site to visitors through specific interpretive themes is the keystone of the proposed presentation of the Manoir Papineau National Historic Site of Canada. This will be achieved by addressing five themes that are drawn directly from the statement of commemorative intent (see section 1.3).

The visitor experience that Parks Canada is proposing is based primarily on a respect for and maximization of the site's authenticity, the potential of the site's buildings and landscapes for evoking the past and, above all, the designer and builder of the seigneurial estate, Louis-Joseph Papineau. Whether the site is viewed as a family home, an illustration of architecture, an estate or a seigneury, Louis-Joseph Papineau is at the centre of the visitor experience offered. As a result, the message conveyed can be formulated as follows:

“A DISCOVERY OF LITTLE-KNOWN FACETS OF LOUIS-JOSEPH PAPINEAU”

A discovery of...

    because visitors leave their familiar everyday reality to enter into the world of another era;
  • because visitors must walk into the grounds, heightening all their senses, and their visit then becomes one of a physical experience of exploration;
  • because different clues along the way initially raise questions in their minds;

little-known facets...

    because Louis-Joseph Papineau's title of “seigneur” is not as well-known as his role as a political figure and represents something of a novelty for the majority of visitors;
  • because the idea of a “seigneur” is in itself an unusual reality for English-speaking visitors and a fairly nebulous concept for francophones;
  • because the “man of great culture” dimension, creator of a private library of considerable size for the time, sheds new light on Louis-Joseph Papineau;
  • because the family and the family estate are so deeply rooted in the site that they are a testament to Louis-Joseph Papineau, the family man, and the importance he attached to those dear to him;
  • because the public is by and large unfamiliar with the talents of Louis-Joseph Papineau as designer of an exceptional manor and as landscape architect;

of Louis-Joseph Papineau...

    because it is the man and his work – Louis-Joseph Papineau, designer and master planner of the “Monte-Bello” estate – that is the raison d'être of the Manoir Papineau National Historic Site of Canada.

All the resources of the seigneurial estate will be presented as being part of a meaningful and coherent whole; they will be presented as part of a heritage experience that culminates with a tour of the manor house. Adapted to the interests and needs of a diverse clientele (school groups, families, summer tourists and holiday resort residents...), the experience offered to visitors will be designed to enhance their understanding of the commemorative theme and their appreciation of the heritage resources present on the site. We will also ensure that the messages developed to convey the commemorative intent facilitate the visitors' understanding of resources found on the site.

Parks Canada will adopt an approach aimed at increasing visitors' awareness of the many facets of Louis-Joseph Papineau's personality (seigneur, master planner and designer of the estate, man of culture, family man, etc.) in order to present the site in all its commemorative integrity.

Furthermore, we will ensure that there is historical continuity in the spatial organization of the site and in the designation of new uses for old landscaping elements, installations and buildings on the estate. With this in mind, Parks Canada will strive to reach an agreement with Anglican Church authorities so that the family museum can be included in the heritage discovery tour of the site.

In conveying heritage messages to visitors, methods will be used that respect the integrity and authenticity of the period landscaping features, installations and buildings on the site.

In more concrete terms, the main ways of presenting the historical context of the site will be the following:

  • By developing an outdoor interpretive circuit of the site, with its primary emphasis on the significance of built heritage situated between the reception centre and the manor, the pièce de résistance; this circuit will provide a certain degree of structure to the visitors' tour of the site and encourage them to go one step further in their discovery of the site by entering the buildings that are open to the public. Subject to an upcoming agreement with Fairmont - Le Château Montebello (see Site Access and Visitor Reception below), the outdoor interpretive tour could be planned around the restoration of the traditional entrance to the estate: visitors could obtain a more complete view of the spatial organization of the estate as it was designed by Papineau by going through the entrance gate on Notre-Dame Street and down Manor House Road, and then along the road that encircles the manor. Restoration of the flower gardens and vegetable garden and the addition of replicas of period outdoor furnishings and accessories would contribute to evoking a sense of Papineau's master plan for the estate.
  • By installing period furnishings in the seigneurial manor; initially, work will be concentrated on the rooms on the main floor, the reading room (upper floor) and the first floor of the library tower; then, as funding becomes available, we will refurnish the entire upper floor of the manor house and eventually the basement, based on the conclusions of the feasibility study mentioned earlier. As they walk around the manor house and become acquainted with its former occupants, visitors will be accompanied by an interpretive guide who will provide valuable information that will add to their understanding of the site.
  • By presenting a thematic exhibition in the granary that focuses on the La Petite-Nation seigneury.
  • By presenting a summary exhibition inside the old family museum Footnote 24. This exhibition will bring out the different facets of the personality of Louis-Joseph Papineau – architect, designer of the ideal estate, family man and seigneur; it will also develop contextual aspects of messages relating to Papineau's seigneurial ideology and the main trends in architecture and landscaping during his time.
  • By working with the Société historique Louis-Joseph-Papineau in enhancing the presentation content inside the funeral chapel.
  • By developing a strategy and external communications program to convey commemorative intent-related messages to the non-visiting public.

Site access and visitor reception

Parks Canada and Fairmont - Le Château Montebello are continuing their discussions aimed at reaching a long term agreement that would give the national historic site more visibility. Their talks have centred on the transfer of a parcel of land located between the train station and Manor House Road that would make it possible to build a parking area for site visitors. The Municipality of Montebello, owner of the neighbouring train station, is also part of the discussions because of plans to use the station as the site's visitor reception area. Parks Canada hopes to be in a position to conclude a formal agreement with all the parties involved in the near future.

Subject to an agreement, part of the Montebello station would be re-developed as a visitor reception area that would include new public washrooms. Signage and access to the trail leading to Manor House Road will also be improved.

In Parks Canada's view, the conclusion of an agreement with its partners does not eliminate the more long term plan of making the entrance gate and gardener's cottage part of the national historic site. At the appropriate time, Parks Canada will study the feasibility of such a project with Fairmont – Le Château Montebello.

Establishing the site within the la Petite-Nation region

Parks Canada will strive to do everything possible to promote the functional and harmonious integration of the site into the La Petite-Nation region by establishing a close and constructive relationship with the main parties involved in the regional community, especially cultural and tourist groups, and by encouraging the participation of community groups in the conservation and presentation of the site.

Parks Canada readily acknowledges that the presentation of the Manoir Papineau National Historic Site of Canada is perceived in the community as a major asset for stimulating regional tourism. With that in mind and within its capabilities, Parks Canada would like:

  • to participate in ongoing discussions of the development of regional tourism and to join forces with local and regional groups in their efforts to develop and promote tourism in the La Petite-Nation region;
  • to contribute to the development of heritage tourism in the La Petite-Nation region;
  • to obtain the close cooperation of Château Montebello in offering a top-quality nature/culture tourist product.

Furthermore, Parks Canada will work towards developing collaboration between groups in the region that could, in the medium term, be responsible for certain aspects of operating the site based on principles of shared management Footnote 25. Shared management consists of the continuous active involvement of two or more partners in operating an historic site with a view to ensuring its commemorative integrity. This approach goes hand in hand with one of Parks Canada's main strategic objectives – to have Canadians participate more actively in decision-making and the implementation of programs in heritage places.

Collaborative agreements reached between Parks Canada and its partners will be in accordance with the “Framework for the Implementation of Shared Management of National Historic Sites” (November 1995) and its subsequent modifications.

Site visitation and revenue

Various factors will likely have an impact on future visitation of the site.

The fact that the site is not visible from the main road has had an impact on the number of tourists coming to the Manoir Papineau National Historic Site of Canada. The visibility problem has reduced the chances of reaching a portion of potential visitors in addition to creating some confusion as to the exact location of the historic site, thus discouraging the “less motivated” visitors. Should an agreement be reached between Parks Canada, the Municipality of Montebello and Fairmont – Le Château Montebello, it would considerably improve upon present accessibility to the site.

An increase in tourist traffic will partly depend on subsequent interventions that would improve the current service offer. Increasing and diversifying the present service offer would require additional exhibition space and complementary attractions outside the manor house. Presentation of the old Papineau family museum (Anglican chapel) and laying out gardens with interpretive signage would be key components in the diversification of the visitor experience proposed, and would have the added benefit of easing congestion in the manor house.

Visitors pay an admission fee to tour the manor house in accordance with the National Pricing Strategy developed by Parks Canada. This revenue partially covers the cost of operating the site. However, the nature, extent and quality of the presentation of the Papineau estate, and the strategic location of the site in the La Petite-Nation tourist region leads us to believe that the admission fee could be increased, justified by an increase in activities and services. To prevent a hike in the fees from resulting in a drop in the number of visitors, the length and quality of the visitor experience will have to be brought into line with the fee charged.

Furthermore, should the old gardens be restored and interpretive signage added, and should they become an integral part of the service offer, this component would clearly be subject to a fee.


Marketing

Because the Manoir Papineau National Historic Site of Canada:

  • is located at the gateway to an important tourist region located just between Montréal and Gatineau/Ottawa;
  • is therefore within reach of the largest population pool in Québec;
  • is located in a tourist corridor that is already widely used by visitors in transit;
  • benefits from the reputation and attraction potential of the Château Montebello;
  • represents, together with the Museum of Civilization in Gatineau and the Mackenzie-King Estate, one of the major heritage resources of the Outaouais region;
  • offers a meaningful experience for visitors, through its interpretation activities and the discovery of its resources;
  • and, furthermore, considering that promotion of the site is presently limited, Parks Canada will develop and implement, jointly with local and regional tourist groups, a marketing strategy and plan of action aimed at increasing the annual number of visitors to the site to 50,000. With this in view, Parks Canada would like to express its intention, contingent on the availability of funding, to open the site to the public year-round and set up a schedule that would ensure its profitability.

The rest of this page contains a more concrete explanation of Parks Canada's long term vision regarding the conservation, presentation and management of the site.

Looking to the future: The Manoir Papineau National Historic Site of Canada

Hidden from sight under the shade of grand old trees, its memories kept safely in its buildings, this place has many stories to tell. It commemorates Louis-Joseph Papineau – leading figure in Canadian history, builder, seigneur, patriarch of an illustrious family and man of great culture. To let the site speak for itself, to reveal the memories of its buildings, gardens and woodlands, to have the public become better acquainted with the famous seigneurial manor and its illustrious residents – that is why Parks Canada has chosen to present this site.

Upon arriving, visitors immediately get the feeling that this family home is like no other. A gate controls access to the property, with a pretty little cottage standing guard near the entrance. The main residence, an authentic MANOR HOUSE, is tucked away at the end of the road, hidden from view. To reach the residence, visitors have to walk down the long Manor House Road, discovering along the way other tangible signs of the uniqueness of this place. But why not let visitors stroll around and enjoy the wealth of resources that the site has to offer!

A stone gate eloquently marks the beginning of the private part of the estate that the seigneur reserved for his family. Like the censitaires or guests in the old days, today’s visitors will arrive by the gardener’s cottage, the same dwelling where the keeper of the estate once lived. This red-brick cottage immediately announces the exceptional status of the estate, and the quality of its architecture is indicative of what is yet to come.

Walking down Manor House Road, visitors enter another world and realize that this site represents another way of thinking, another way of doing things. Clues along the way as the road climbs up to the manor do not go unnoticed as visitors discover the cultural landscape as it was designed and organized by the master of the estate. Who built this eclectic residence and why this long winding road? What exactly is an “inhabited estate”? The forest we are going through, is it “natural”? Why all these trails leading into the woodland... and this stream running under the bridge, where it is going? Along the road are rustic benches inviting visitors to pause and admire the light and shadows created by the branches of tall trees.

The funeral chapel is the next important stop on a tour around this heritage site. Here, the atmosphere is hushed and filled with emotion. In the crypt lie the remains of Louis-Joseph Papineau, some of his immediate family and descendants: this chapel is very telling of the importance of family in Papineau’s life. The fact that he created a family mausoleum reflects his social ambitions and his vision of a seigneurial dynasty deeply rooted in its estate. A representative of the Société historique Louis- Joseph Papineau, one of Parks Canada’s partners, is on hand, inviting visitors to think back on the finest hours of the illustrious Papineau family.

At the bend in the road, visitors walk past the remains of the old icehouse and then, up a slightly steeper incline, to the summit of Cape Bonsecours and the magnificent manor house built by Papineau overlooking the Ottawa River. The manor, restored to its appearance of former years, is the pièce de résistance of the visitors’ experience. It was here that a family once lived – a family with its own hopes, dreams and sorrows – and its day-to-day life. The manor’s architecture reflects the social aspirations and notoriety of its owner. A coat of arms in the vestibule, a monogram on the balcony, initials inscribed on the roof – all tangible signs of the determination of its designer to mark his position in society for all to see. A grand tour around the manor house with an interpretive guide enables visitors to experience the hushed ambiance, admire the decorative touches and the furnishings that have been handed down through the generations, get an appreciation of the layout of the rooms, and understand the rationale of its designer. Towers and turrets are just two of the architectural features of this manor. The square tower, housing the seigneurial office and library, was where two sides of Papineau – the man of culture and the seigneur – came together. It is in this office on the main floor that Papineau would meet with his censitaires. The fortified tower, built to withstand any eventuality, was also where Papineau safeguarded his impressive collection of books, one of the most distinguished private libraries in Canada at the time.

On leaving the seigneurial office, visitors are invited to make their way to the old family museum, a building designed and built by Louis-Joseph’s eldest son and heir, Louis-Joseph Amédée. Intended for the enjoyment of guests and visitors passing through, today the museum contains a summary exhibition illustrating the ideological foundations that guided the development of the manor house, estate and seigneury. The family memories exhibited in the museum have become a living testament to the rich heritage of this national historic site.

Visitors are then invited to follow in the steps of Louis-Joseph Papineau, this time lover of nature and amateur gardener. Landscaping elements inspired by the writings of Andrew Jackson Downing are an invitation to stop and rest a minute. At the tea pavilion, you can relax, have “a cuppa” and take the time to enjoy the magnificent view over the Ottawa River. Visitors are then invited to take a stroll around the flower beds and vegetable gardens and catch a glimpse of several exotic species that have been planted here and that are looked after by amateur horticulturists in the community.

The last stop is the granary, situated at the far west end of the estate. Here, visitors can learn a little more about the La Petite-Nation seigneury. The granary was, in fact, originally a warehouse for storing grain that censitaires would bring in payment for their seigneurial dues. Today the granary is home to several exhibits on the development of the seigneury.

On the walk back, visitors are able to get an overall picture of the cultural landscape designed by Louis- Joseph Papineau and his son Amédée. The road and the trails crisscrossing the grounds, the woodland park, the lawns, the gardens and the meadows are all parts of the great “puzzle” of the ideal estate envisioned by Louis-Joseph Papineau.

When we embark on the discovery of a natural setting of such grandeur and a figure of multiple facets, it appeals to our deepest values. It is an experience that makes us reflect upon our present-day society where family, culture and democracy are still values that we cling to dearly in our day-to-day life. When visitors encounter the wealth of resources offered at the Manoir Papineau National Historic Site of Canada it gives them pause to ponder on the collective work still to be accomplished.


4.0 Summary of the environmental impact assessment

4.1 Background

The management plan for Manoir Papineau National Historic Site of Canada was subject to a strategic environmental review in accordance with the Cabinet directive on Environmental Assessment for Policy and Program Proposals, a federal self-assessment tool used by departments and agencies to broadly determine, assess and mitigate the environmental repercussions of projected development and activities. Under Parks Canada national management directive 2.4.2 on impact assessment, the scope of these environmental assessments also includes cultural resources so that only one report is required. The environmental impact assessment of the present management plan is contained in a separate document titled Examen environnemental stratégique du plan directeur du lieu historique national du Canada du Manoir Papineau, [Strategic environmental assessment of the management plan for Manoir Papineau National Historic Site of Canada]. Below is a brief summary of that report.

Management of the Manoir Papineau National Historic Site of Canada must take into account the fact that the site covers a limited area and is bordered by the Montebello station and Château Montebello, making access to the site difficult. The forest resources found on the site are part of a larger wooded area that extends beyond Parks Canada property.


4.2 Methodology

The approach used for assessing the management plan consists of several steps. The directions outlined in the plan are initially reviewed to ensure that they are in accordance with Parks Canada's mandate and policies. The development and activities involved in presentation of the site are examined in order to bring to light any sources of stress. Impacts identified are then characterized in terms of duration (temporary or permanent impact) and extent (no impact, little impact, mitigatable, non-mitigatable, unknown). General measures aimed at lessening the negative impacts anticipated are then determined.


4.3 Scope

This environmental impact assessment was based on existing documents and on the opinion of experts in natural and cultural resource management. Biophysical resources (soil, air, water, vegetation and wildlife) and cultural resources (cultural landscapes, built heritage and archaeological resources) were taken into consideration. The examination of cumulative impacts, however, was limited to the site's presented elements.


4.4 Appropriateness of the strategic goals outlined in the management plan

The development and activities proposed in the present management plan jeopardize neither the commemorative integrity nor the knowledge and appreciation of heritage. On the contrary, they stand to strengthen these components.

The strategic goals aimed at protecting and presenting the natural resources that are outlined in the management plan are relatively specific. They are subject to an eventual plan for the protection and development of cultural landscapes. The directives in the plan could have an incidence on the protection of such resources.


4.5 Identification of sources of impact and assessment of concerns

An analysis of anticipated impacts on natural resources raises concerns that the restoration of buildings, landscape work and the implementation of self-guided tours could potentially have negative impacts on the environment, particularly the vegetation. Because of the small area covered by the site, the tourist trade in the region and the access control problem, usage of the site will be all the more unpredictable and during the busy season it will become more difficult to confine visitors to the areas intended for their use. In addition, the thin layer of glacial till maintaining the Cape Bonsecours forest populations renders that area fragile, especially because of the likelihood of erosion on the steep slopes.

Furthermore, it is important to note that poison ivy is growing in certain areas of the property and thus poses a danger of skin irritations to both visitors and the researchers and maintenance personnel working on the site.

The negative impacts anticipated on cultural resources are also cause for concern but these impacts are mitigatable. There is considerable concern over proposed landscaping interventions aimed at developing a certain degree of continuity between the cultural landscape of the past and the current process for presenting that landscape. The period of time between these two active “eras” has seen some deterioration in the cultural resources, including the cultural landscape. With that context in mind, and based on the findings of ethnohistorical, archaeological and other studies conducted, we will have to ensure that all elements that define the spirit of the place are protected and restored by renewing the association between built heritage and its particular landscape setting.

Should Parks Canada eventually reach an agreement that would allow the construction of a parking lot on the property between Montebello station and Manor House Road, it goes without saying that such a development would have an impact on the densely wooded environment. Environmental impact studies will need to be conducted and mitigation measures will have to be determined prior to the design phase of building this parking area.

In addition, projected presentation work could have negative secondary effects on cultural landscapes if appropriate measures are not strictly applied to protect the landscaping elements during the work (for example, the comings and goings of heavy machinery and the removal of waste material). Some of the archaeological resources could be threatened by the circulation of vehicles, invasive vegetation (the icehouse, for example), construction work nearby and landscaping work if proper measures are not taken. Archaeological resources that have not yet been found are vulnerable in that they are not visible on the surface of the ground and therefore cannot be protected as would normally be the case.

The eventual implementation of public transportation in the form of a shuttle bus could have a negative impact on the protection and presentation of the cultural heritage of the site (erosion, conflict with pedestrian traffic, parking, noise, dust, etc.), if proper steps are not taken.

Lastly, the conservation and security of original furnishings and objects that will be used in the presentation of the manor house is a concern that has already been addressed.

Mitigation measures have already been proposed, including having visitors be accompanied by interpretive guides.


4.6 Cumulative impacts

The environmental impact assessment only examined cumulative impacts on presented elements at the site. Based on our current knowledge of the surroundings and how the presentation proposed would interact with the environment, the following key components were noted:

  • The site's vegetation is part of a much larger forest region, most of which is not under Parks Canada jurisdiction. Development of the site and the hotel complex nearby have already had a detrimental effect on the forest cover. The natural environment will be subjected to additional stress, particularly as a result of landscaping work and increased visitation of the site.
  • As for impacts on the site's cultural heritage, the combined effects of time, successive restoration and landscaping work and considerable visitor traffic are all significant factors that put stress on the site's relatively fragile and non-renewable resources. Without an approach that respects the heritage fabric of the site and a tight control of the development of facilities for visitor reception and self-guided tours, conservation of the essential characteristics of this national historic site could be threatened.

4.7 Mitigation measures

In order to mitigate the likely negative impacts of presenting the site, the following measures will need to be implemented:

  • During presentation work, efforts will have to be made to protect the vegetation present in and around the work area.
  • The plan for protecting and presenting landscapes will have to take into account the changing nature of plant communities and will seek to preserve their characteristics should it be necessary to make clearings to recreate cultural landscapes.
  • To prevent the danger of visitors or employees coming into contact with poison ivy, periodic surveys of the grounds will have to be conducted and warning signs posted. Employees involved in research or landscaping work will be provided with protective clothing and equipment. If necessary, selective eradication of the poison ivy may be considered.
  • A program of preventative excavation and/or archaeological monitoring will have to be implemented throughout all excavation and landscaping work associated with the construction, repair or presentation of buildings and other structures, or the installation of services. If need be, steps will have to be taken (salvage excavations or soil stabilization) to prevent the deterioration of vestiges uncovered for permanent exhibition purposes.

4.8 Conclusion

The results of this environmental impact assessment lead us to conclude that based on the information currently available, the presentation concept adopted for the site is acceptable from the environmental and heritage standpoint. Overall, the plan's strategic directions are consistent with Parks Canada's mandate and management policies. The assessment has, however, raised certain concerns regarding the protection of cultural and natural resources. Potential conflicts between preservation of commemorative integrity and protection of natural heritage have been noted. Solutions or at least partial solutions will be addressed when various management documents are drawn up, such as the plan for the preservation and development of cultural landscapes and the natural resource management plan.

This general environmental impact assessment indicates that directions relative to presentation of this historic site do not conflict with objectives aimed at preserving commemorative integrity and protecting natural heritage. The potential negative impacts raising the most concern will be mitigatable through the implementation of known technical measures or other means that have proven to be effective in the past. In accordance with the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act (CEAA) or Department of the Environment and Parks Canada directives and policies, more detailed environmental assessments will have to be conducted at a later stage in the planning process when the projects will be more clearly defined.


5.0 Conclusion

Although the more important directions outlined in this management plan are designed to ensure the long term commemorative integrity of the site, various measures have also been discussed that are aimed at providing visitors with appropriate services during their time at the site, protecting and presenting environmental components of the Papineau estate and promoting a harmonious integration of the site into the La Petite-Nation region.

To date, considerable funds have been invested to complete the first phase of presentation of the historic site. Implementation of all the interventions mentioned in the plan will require significant funding efforts that are not feasible in the short term. It will probably take another several years before the site will have the funds needed to finish presentation work. As it looks into the problem of how it will finance the initiatives proposed, Parks Canada will seek financial support from its partners and other groups who share the same values.

In the coming years, the Western Québec Field Unit, which is responsible for administering the site, will make every effort possible, using its own budget or through partnership agreements, to implement a certain number of priority measures, namely:

  • Carry out work designed to preserve the main outbuildings on the estate;
  • Take the necessary steps to preserve the vestiges of the icehouse;
  • Subject to an agreement with the parties involved, build a parking area for site visitors and proper reception facilities and signage;
  • Complete planning studies by drawing up a plan for developing the landscape of the historic site;
  • Begin developing the proposed outdoor interpretation circuit;
  • Come to an agreement with the Anglican Diocese of Montréal to allow Parks Canada develop the old family museum according to the presentation concept adopted;
  • Come to an agreement with Fairmont Le Château Montebello whereby the boundaries of the property covered by the lease could be extended to include the entrance gate to Manor House Road and the gardener's cottage.
  • At the present time, implementation of other projects must be considered in the longer term, if funding becomes available. It is possible, however, that certain co-funded projects could begin earlier should partnership opportunities present themselves.

In accordance with provisions of the Parks Canada Agency Act, this management plan will be updated in 2010. All directions and measures that have not been carried out by that time will be re-visited in the review of the plan. In the meantime, interested members of the general public can consult the State of Protected Heritage Areas Report, published biannually, for information on the state of the site with regard to measures taken to ensure its commemorative integrity.


6.0 Studies and research reports

BÉDARD, Michel. Louis-Joseph Papineau : synthèse préliminaire des connaissances sur l'homme politique et le seigneur, Québec, Parks Canada, 1993, 359 pages.

BÉDARD, Michel. Le domaine Papineau de Monte-Bello : contexte de développement, évolution du paysage culturel et synthèse de la présence humaine (1805-1929), Québec, Parks Canada, 1997.

BÉRARD, Luc, and John. E. ZVONAR. Étude préliminaire de l'aménagement paysager – Lieu historique national du Manoir-Papineau, Québec, Parks Canada, 1995, 78 pages.

CANADIAN HERITAGE, Parks Canada. Énoncé d'intégrité commémorative - LHN du Manoir-Papineau, March 1997, 25 pages + appendix.

CANADIAN HERITAGE, Parks Canada. Document d'orientation - LHN du Manoir-Papineau, July 1996, 23 pages.

CANADIAN HERITAGE, Parks Canada. Proposition de mise en valeur - LHN du Manoir-Papineau, September 1997, 56 pages.

CANADIAN HERITAGE, Parks Canada. Compte rendu du programme de participation du public - LHN du Manoir-Papineau, March 1998, 43 pages.

CANADIAN HERITAGE, Parks Canada. Évaluation préalable au lieu historique national du Manoir-Papineau - Rapport de résultats, Marketing and Business Unit, September 1997, 37 pages + appendix.

DESMEULES, Claire. LHN du Manoir-Papineau, Montebello, Plan d'aménagement, Parks Canada, March 1998, 61 pages + illustrations.

DESMEULES, Claire. LHN du Manoir-Papineau, Montebello, Plan d'éclairage des pièces visées par le réaménagement historique, Parks Canada, November 1997, 7 pages.

DESMEULES, Claire. Recherche sur la désignation des pièces du Manoir-Papineau de Montebello, Parks Canada, 1996, 7 pages.

DESMEULES, Claire, and Raynald BILODEAU. LHN du Manoir-Papineau, Montebello, Gamme chromatique pour l'intérieur du manoir, Parks Canada, December 1997, 17 pages.

FORTIER, Yvan. Étude architecturale du manoir et des dépendances de « Monte-Bello », Québec, Parks Canada, 1997, 270 pages.

GAUTHIER, Richard, and Claire DESMEULES. Inventaire et évaluation des objets historiques provenant du LHN du Manoir-Papineau, Parks Canada, 1998, 864 pages.

GUIMONT, Jacques. Évaluation du potentiel archéologique du lieu historique national du Manoir-Papineau à Montebello, Montebello, Société historique Louis-Joseph-Papineau, 1994, 304 pages.

GUIMONT, Jacques. L.H.N. du Manoir-Papineau (Montebello) : Résultats de l'intervention archéologique réalisée du 4 août au 5 septembre 1997, Québec, Parks Canada, 1998, 164 pages + Appendix 4: Monique ÉLIE. ”Surveillance archéologique des travaux de curetage au Manoir-Papineau” (June 25-27,1997), p. 165-190.

GUIMONT, Jacques. L.H.N. du Manoir-Papineau à Montebello : Résultats de l'intervention archéologique réalisée du 15 juin au 14 juillet 1998, Québec, Parks Canada, 1998, 164 pages + Appendix 3 : L'ANGLAIS, Paul-Gaston. Lieu historique national du Manoir-Papineau à Montebello : Regard archéologique sur des débris de verre, October 1998, 65 pages; Appendix 4 : FORTIN, Catherine. Analyse paléoethnobotanique du site du Manoir-Papineau, Montebello (site 83G), March 1998, 22 pages; and Appendix 5: Les béliers hydrauliques , taken from Ludger ROBITAILLE and Louis-A. BÉLISLE, Hygiène et plomberie, p. 45-48.

LAFORTE, Esther. Inventaire des ressources archéologiques paléohistoriques du sentier d'accès temporaire au lieu historique national du Manoir-Papineau, Québec, Parks Canada, 1994, 8 pages.

LAFORTE, Esther. Étude de potentiel et inventaire des ressources archéologiques paléohistoriques du lieu historique national du Manoir-Papineau, Québec, Parks Canada, 1994, 41 pages.

L'ÉCART-TYPE. Étude socio-économique préalable au concept de mise en valeur – Lieu historique national du Manoir-Papineau, Parks Canada, Québec, 1994, 82 pages.

L'ÉCART-TYPE. Étude socio-économique préalable au concept de mise en valeur – Annexe bibliographique, Québec, Parks Canada, 1994, 43 pages.

LOCUS LOISIR ET CULTURE INC. Analyse de marché et plan d'actions stratégiques – Lieu historique national du Manoir-Papineau, Québec, 1997, 29 pages.

MARTEL, Renée. Inventaire préliminaire du mobilier et des objets – Lieu historique national du Manoir-Papineau, Québec, Environment Canada, Parks Service, 1991, 261 pages.

MUSÉO•STHAR. Concept d'expérience de visite Version révisée – Lieu historique national du Manoir-Papineau, Québec, Parks Canada, 1996, 38 pages.

PRUD'HOMME, Chantal. Étude sur les jardins et le potager – Lieu historique national du Manoir-Papineau, Québec, Public Works and Government Services Canada, 1995, 69 pages.

SAINT-LOUIS, Denis. Étude de potentiel d'utilisation, Manoir-Papineau, Québec, Department of Communications of Canada, 1986, 190 pages.

SAINT-LOUIS, Denis. Étude préliminaire à la mise en valeur du Manoir-Papineau, Montebello (Québec), Québec, Parks Canada, 1995, 203 pages and 4 appendices.

SAINT-LOUIS, AMYOT, CÔTÉ, LEAHY ARCH., GROUPE CONSEIL GENIVAR INC. Chantal PRUD'HOMME, landscape architect. Rapport d'études conceptuelles - Manoir-Papineau, Public Works and Government Services Canada, 1997, 36 pages + 2 appendices.

SYLVICO. Inventaire biophysique du lieu historique national du Manoir-Papineau, Québec, Parks Canada, 1994, 70 pages.

URBANEX. Études sur la clientèle actuelle et d'éventuels partenaires – 1. Recherche de partenaires, Québec, Parks Canada, 1994, 30 pages.

URBANEX and IMPACT-RECHERCHE. Étude sur la clientèle actuelle et d'éventuels partenaires – 2. Profil de la clientèle – Lieu historique national du Manoir-Papineau, Québec, Parks Canada, 1994, 45 pages.

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